Zhiyuan Yu, Jun Zheng, Lu Ma, Chao You and Hao Li
Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Meltem Gümüs, Daniela Pierscianek, Annika Herten, Andreas Kneist, Karsten Wrede, Lennart Barthel, Michael Forsting, Ulrich Sure and Ramazan Jabbarli
Current guidelines for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) include early aneurysm treatment within 72 hours after ictus. However, aneurysm rebleeding remains a crucial complication of SAH. The aim of this study was to identify independent predictors allowing early stratification of SAH patients for rebleeding risk.
All patients admitted to the authors’ institution with ruptured aneurysms during a 14-year period were eligible for this retrospective study. Demographic and radiographic parameters, aneurysm characteristics, medical history, and medications as well as baseline parameters at admission (blood pressure and laboratory parameters) were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. A novel risk score was created using independent risk factors.
Data from 984 cases could be included into the final analysis. Aneurysm rebleeding occurred in 58 cases (5.9%), and in 48 of these cases (82.8%) rerupture occurred within 24 hours after SAH. Of over 30 tested associations, preexisting arterial hypertension (p = 0.02; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.56, 1 score point), aneurysm location at the basilar artery (p = 0.001, aOR 4.5, 2 score points), sac size ≥ 9 mm (p = 0.04, aOR 1.9, 1 score point), presence of intracerebral hemorrhage (p = 0.001, aOR 4.29, 2 score points), and acute hydrocephalus (p < 0.001, aOR 6.27, 3 score points) independently predicted aneurysm rebleeding. A score built upon these parameters (0–9 points) showed a good diagnostic accuracy (p < 0.001, area under the curve 0.780) for rebleeding prediction.
Certain patient-, aneurysm-, and SAH-specific parameters can reliably predict aneurysm rerupture. A score developed according to these parameters might help to identify individuals that would profit from immediate aneurysm occlusion.
Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Kathrin Buffen, Daniela Pierscianek, Annika Herten, Yahya Ahmadipour, Philipp Dammann, Laurèl Rauschenbach, Michael Forsting, Ulrich Sure and Ramazan Jabbarli
Clinical data on secondary hemorrhagic complications (SHCs) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are sparse and mostly limited to ventriculostomy-associated SHCs. This study aimed to elucidate the incidence, risk factors, and impact on outcome of SHCs in a large cohort of SAH patients.
All consecutive patients with ruptured aneurysms treated between January 2003 and June 2016 were eligible for this study. Patients’ charts were reviewed for clinical data, and imaging studies were reviewed for radiographic data. SHCs were divided into those associated with ventriculostomy and those not associated with ventriculostomy, as well as into major and minor bleeding forms, depending on clinical impact.
Sixty-two (6.6%) of the 939 patients included in the final analysis developed SHCs. Ventriculostomy-associated bleedings (n = 16) were independently predicted by mono- or dual-antiplatelet therapy after aneurysm treatment (p = 0.028, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.28; and p = 0.026, aOR = 14.25, respectively) but showed no impact on functional outcome after SAH. Periinterventional use of thrombolytic agents for early effective anticoagulation was the only independent predictor (p = 0.010, aOR = 4.27) of major SHCs (n = 38, 61.3%) in endovascularly treated patients. In turn, a major SHC was independently associated with poor outcome at the 6-month follow-up (modified Rankin Scale score > 3). Blood thinning drug therapy prior to SAH was not associated with SHC risk.
SHCs present a rare sequela of SAH. Antiplatelet therapy during (but not before) SAH increases the risk of ventriculostomy-associated bleedings, but without further impact on the course and outcome of SAH. The use of thrombolytic agents for early effective anticoagulation carries relevant risk for major SHCs and poor outcome.
Mehdi Chihi, Oliver Gembruch, Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Bixia Chen, Thiemo Florin Dinger, Lennart Barthel, Daniela Pierscianek, Karsten H. Wrede, Neriman Özkan, Ulrich Sure and Ramazan Jabbarli
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multisystem genetic disease. Arterial wall developmental disorders, such as aneurysms, in association with TSC have been well described for extracranial vasculature. The characteristics of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in TSC have not previously been addressed in the literature. This systematic review was performed to identify and assess the distinct characteristics of IAs in patients with TSC.
The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for publications describing cases of TSC and IA reported before August 7, 2018. They also report 2 cases of IAs in TSC patients treated at their own institution.
Thirty-three TSC patients with a total of 42 IAs were included in this review. Three individuals presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The IAs were large or giant in 57.1% and fusiform in 45.2% of the cases. Most of the IAs (61.9%, 26 of 42) originated from the internal carotid artery. There was a higher prevalence of pediatric cases (66.7%) and male patients (63.6%, 21 of 32 individuals with known sex) among the collected series.
TSC patients with IAs are characterized with a higher proportion of large/giant and fusiform IAs and young age, suggesting rapid aneurysmal growth. Furthermore, there is a distinct location pattern of IAs and an inverse sex ratio than in the healthy population. Large population-based patient registers are required to improve the understanding of epidemiology and pathophysiology of IA formation in TSC.