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Martin Wiesmann, Thomas E. Mayer, Indra Yousry, Ralph Medele, Gerhard F. Hamann and Hartmut Brückmann

Object. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-field (1.5-tesla) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of hyperacute (< 12 hours after onset of symptoms) subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Methods. This investigation included 13 patients who were examined 2 to 12 hours posthemorrhage by using an MR imaging protocol consisting of T2-weighted and proton-density (PD)-weighted images, T1-weighted images, fast echoplanar—diffusion-weighted (EP-DW) images, and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. Subarachnoid hemorrhage had been diagnosed using computerized tomography (CT) scanning in all cases.

In all 13 cases, SAH was reliably detected on both PD-weighted and FLAIR images. In contrast with FLAIR studies, the PD-weighted images were free of cerebrospinal fluid flow artifacts. The SAH was detected on T1-weighted images in only two cases and could not be detected on any T2-weighted or EP-DW images.

Conclusions. Even hyperacute SAH can be diagnosed reliably from high-field MR images obtained using PD-weighted or FLAIR sequences. Use of these sequences in an emergency MR protocol may preclude the need for additional CT studies to rule out SAH.

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Indra Yousry, Salvador Camelio, Martin Wiesmann, Urs D. Schmid, Bernhard Moriggl, Hartmut Brückmann and Tarek A. Yousry

Object. The goal of this study was to identify reliably the cisternal segment of the abducent nerve by using the three-dimensional Fourier transform constructive interference in steady-state (3-D CISS) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence to define landmarks that assist in the identification of the abducent nerve on MR imaging and to describe the nerve's relationship to the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA).

Methods. A total of 26 volunteers underwent 3-D CISS MR imaging, and 10 of these volunteers also underwent MR angiography in which a time-of-flight sequence was used to identify the facial colliculus, the abducent nerve and its apparent origin, Dorello's canal, and the AICA.

The authors identified the abducent nerve with certainty in 96% of 3-D CISS sequences obtained in the axial and sagittal planes and in 94% obtained in the coronal plane. The nerve emerged from the pontomedullary sulcus in 94% of cases. The facial colliculus could always be identified, and Dorello's canal was identified in 94% of cases. In 76.6% of cases, the abducent nerve was seen to contact the AICA, which passed inferior to the nerve in 63.8% of cases and superior to it in 29.8%.

Conclusions. The anatomical course of the abducent nerve and its relationship to the AICA and other blood vessels can be reliably identified using a 3-D CISS MR sequence with the facial colliculus and Dorello's canal serving as landmarks.

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Michael Veldeman, Walid Albanna, Miriam Weiss, Catharina Conzen, Tobias Philip Schmidt, Henna Schulze-Steinen, Martin Wiesmann, Hans Clusmann and Gerrit Alexander Schubert

OBJECTIVE

The current definition of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is based on clinical characteristics precluding its use in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Additional concepts to evaluate the unconscious patient are required. Invasive neuromonitoring (INM) may allow timely detection of metabolic and oxygenation crises before irreversible damage has occurred.

METHODS

The authors present a cohort analysis of all consecutive SAH patients referred to a single tertiary care center between 2010 and 2018. The cohort (n = 190) was split into two groups: one before (n = 96) and one after (n = 94) the introduction of INM in 2014. A total of 55 poor-grade SAH patients were prospectively monitored using parenchymal oxygen saturation measurement and cerebral microdialysis. The primary outcome was the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended (GOSE) score after 12 months.

RESULTS

With neuromonitoring, the first DCI event was detected earlier (mean 2.2 days, p = 0.002). The overall rate of DCI-related infarctions decreased significantly (from 44.8% to 22.3%; p = 0.001) after the introduction of invasive monitoring. After 12 months, a higher rate of favorable outcome was observed in the post-INM group, compared to the pre-INM group (53.8% vs 39.8%), with a significant difference in the GOSE score distribution (OR 4.86, 95% CI −1.17 to −0.07, p = 0.028).

CONCLUSIONS

In this cohort analysis of poor-grade SAH patients, the introduction of INM and the extension of the classic DCI definition toward a functional dimension resulted in an earlier detection and treatment of DCI events. This led to an overall decrease in DCI-related infarctions and an improvement in outcome.

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Jennifer Linn, Bernhard Moriggl, Friederike Schwarz, Thomas P. Naidich, Urs D. Schmid, Martin Wiesmann, Hartmut Bruckmann and Indra Yousry

Object

The aim of this study was to determine whether high-resolution MR imaging is suitable for identifying and differentiating among the nerve root bundles of the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve [CN] IX), vagus (CN X), and accessory nerves (CN XI) as well as any adjacent vessels.

Methods

Twenty-five patients (50 sides) underwent MR imaging using the 3D constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) sequence, as well as noncontrast and contrast-enhanced 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography. Two individuals scored these studies by consensus to determine how well these sequences displayed the neurovascular contacts and nerve root bundles of CNs IX and X and the cranial and spinal roots of CN XI. Landmarks useful for identifying each lower CN were specifically sought.

Results

The 3D CISS sequence successfully depicted CNs IX and X in 100% of the sides. Nerve root bundles of the cranial segment of CN XI were identified in 88% of the sides and those of the spinal segment of CN XI were noted in 93% of the sides. Landmarks useful in identifying the lower CNs included the vagal trigone, the choroid plexus of the lateral recess, the glossopharyngeal and vagal meatus, the inferior petrosal sinus, and the vertebral artery. The combined use of 3D CISS and 3D TOF sequences demonstrated neurovascular contacts at the nerve root entry or exit zones in 19% of all nerves visualized.

Conclusions

The combined use of 3D CISS MR imaging and 3D TOF MR angiography (with or without contrast) successfully displays the detailed anatomy of the lower CNs and adjacent structures in vivo. These imaging sequences have the potential to aid the preoperative diagnosis of and the presurgical planning for pathology in this anatomical area.