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Vincent A. Jourdain, Laurent Grégoire, Marc Morissette, Nicolas Morin, Martin Parent and Thérèse Di Paolo

Object

Subthalamotomy is a stereotactic surgery performed in patients with disabling dyskinesias due to Parkinson disease. The authors set out to model this human condition in MPTP monkeys and determine if subthalamotomy allowed a reduction of levodopa for similar benefit.

Methods

The authors performed unilateral subthalamotomy in 4 parkinsonian dyskinetic monkeys by stereotactic injection of ibotenic acid. An optimal dose, defined as the highest dose of levodopa improving parkinsonian motor symptoms while inducing low or no dyskinesias, was established in these animals. Each monkey was scored for the antiparkinsonian and dyskinetic effects of the optimal dose of levodopa, as well as suboptimal and dyskinesia-inducing doses (60% and 140% of the optimal dose, respectively), and these scores were compared with those obtained at baseline before and after subthalamotomy. Bradykinesia was assessed by a prehension task.

Results

Unilateral subthalamotomy had a positive effect on the antiparkinsonian response for all doses of levodopa as well as the baseline. There were no differences in the antiparkinsonian response between the suboptimal dose postsurgery and the optimal dose presurgery. Dyskinesias were increased at the suboptimal and the optimal doses. After surgery, the duration of response to levodopa increased between 20% and 25% in the suboptimal dose, whereas it remained unchanged with higher doses. Bradykinesia was significantly reduced after surgery only at the suboptimal dose.

Conclusions

Subthalamotomy potentiated the response to suboptimal doses of levodopa. Thus, levodopa can be reduced by 40% after surgery for similar beneficial antiparkinsonian response and less dyskinesia than with an optimal dose before surgery.

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Damon DePaoli, Laurent Goetz, Dave Gagnon, Gabriel Maranon, Michel Prud’homme, Léo Cantin, Martin Parent and Daniel C. Côté

OBJECTIVE

The clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery relies heavily on the implantation accuracy of a chronic stimulating electrode into a small target brain region. Most techniques that have been proposed to precisely target these deep brain regions were designed to map intracerebral electrode trajectory prior to chronic electrode placement, sometimes leading to positioning error of the final electrode. This study was designed to create a new intraoperative guidance tool for DBS neurosurgery that can improve target detection during the final implantation of the chronic electrode.

METHODS

Taking advantage of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the authors developed a new surgical tool that senses proximal brain tissue through the tip of the chronic electrode by means of a novel stylet, which provides rigidity to DBS leads and houses fiber optics.

RESULTS

As a proof of concept, the authors demonstrated the ability of their noninvasive optical guidance technique to precisely locate the border of the subthalamic nucleus during the implantation of commercially available DBS electrodes in anesthetized parkinsonian monkeys. Innovative optical recordings combined to standard microelectrode mapping and detailed postmortem brain examination allowed the authors to confirm the precision of optical target detection. They also show the optical technique’s ability to detect, in real time, upcoming blood vessels, reducing the risk of hemorrhage during the chronic lead implantation.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors present a new optical guidance technique that can detect target brain regions during DBS surgery from within the implanted electrode using a proof of concept in nonhuman primates. The technique discriminates tissue in real time, contributes no additional invasiveness to the procedure by being housed within the electrode, and can provide complementary information to microelectrode mapping during the implantation of the chronic electrode. The technique may also be a powerful tool for providing direct anatomical information in the case of direct implantations wherein microelectrode mapping is not performed.