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Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging

Mark M. Souweidane

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Mark Hamilton, John Peter Gruen, and Mark G. Luciano

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Kelly J. Bullivant, Alim P. Mitha, and Mark G. Hamilton

The PS Medical Strata valve is a programmable shunt valve used in the treatment of hydrocephalus that allows for noninvasive changes in the pressure setting using a magnet. The Strata valve is sensitive to magnetic fields, and reprogramming is frequently necessary after MR imaging. A known but rare complication of the Strata valve is that the rotor can become locked, causing shunt malfunction. This complication can only occur in a first generation Strata valve.

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Mark G. Hamilton and S. Terence Mylks

✓ Injury to the spinal column and spinal cord occurs relatively infrequently in the pediatric population. A review of 174 pediatric patients is presented, representing 5.4% of all patients admitted with spinal injury, Spinal cord injury was present in 45% of patients. A distinct injury profile, explained by anatomical and biomechanical features, distinguishes the young patient with an immature spine from older adolescents with a more mature, adult-like spine. The younger patients, while less likely to have spinal injury, had a higher incidence of neurological injury, in addition to a higher frequency of both spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality and upper cervical cord injury. In addition, younger patients with spinal cord injury and no radiological abnormality were more likely to have complete or severe cord injury. Prognosis was determined by the severity of spinal cord injury. Patients with complete cord injuries showed little improvement, while patients with incomplete injuries generally fared much better, with 74% showing significant improvement and 59% experiencing a complete recovery of neurological functions. There were six deaths, but none was attributed solely to spinal injury. The authors conclude that outcome is quite good after pediatric spinal cord injury that does not produce a physiologically complete cord deficit.

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Mark G. Hamilton and S. Terence Myles

✓ Injury to the spinal column and spinal cord occurs relatively infrequently in the pediatric population. The authors present a unique review of 61 pediatric deaths associated with spinal injury. This group represented 28% of the total pediatric spine-injured population and 45% of the total pediatric spinal cord-injured group studied. The ratio of pediatric to adult spinal injury mortality was 2.5:1. Of the 61 children, 54 (89%) died at the accident scene. Thirty patients underwent a complete autopsy, 19 of whom had an Abbreviated Injury Scale Grade 6 injury (maximum score, untreatable). Spinal cord injury was found to be the cause of death in only eight children and was associated with injury to the high cervical cord and cardiorespiratory arrest. These children typically sustained severe multiple trauma. In this population, there appears to be little room for improved outcome through changes in treatment strategy.

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Mark G. Hamilton, Ahmed K. Toma, Charles Teo, Caroline Hayhurst, and Mark Souweidane