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Mark G. Bigder, Sandeep Krishnan, E. Francis Cook and Anthony M. Kaufmann

OBJECTIVE

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)–associated trigeminal neuralgia (TN) have higher recurrence and retreatment rates than non-MS patients. The optimal management strategy and role for microsurgical rhizotomy (MSR) for MS-TN remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to report time to treatment failure (TTF) and pain scores following MSR compared to percutaneous and Gamma Knife procedures.

METHODS

Time to treatment failure was analyzed after MSR (n = 14) versus prior procedures (n = 53) among MS-TN patients. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test were utilized to compare TTF after MSR versus prior procedures using the same cohort of patients as their own control group. Subsequent analysis compared TTF after MSR to TTF after 93 other procedures among a second cohort of 18 MS-TN patients not undergoing MSR. BNI pain scores were compared between MSR and other procedures among the MS-TN cohort using a chi-square test.

RESULTS

TTF was significantly longer after MSR than after other procedures in the MSR cohort (median TTF 79 vs 10 months, respectively, p < 0.0001). Similarly, TTF was longer after MSR than after prior procedures in the non-MSR cohort (median TTF 79 vs 13 months, respectively, p < 0.001). MSR resulted in a higher proportion of excellent pain scores when compared to other procedures in the non-MSR cohort (77% vs 29%, p < 0.001). Probability of treatment survival was higher after MSR than after other procedures at all time points (3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months). There were no deaths or major complications after MSR.

CONCLUSIONS

TTF was significantly longer following MSR compared to prior procedures in MS-TN patients. Additionally, a higher proportion of patients achieved excellent BNI pain scores after MSR.

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Ephraim W. Church, Mark G. Bigder, Eric S. Sussman, Santosh E. Gummidipundi, Summer S. Han, Jeremy J. Heit, Huy M. Do, Robert L. Dodd, Michael P. Marks and Gary K. Steinberg

OBJECTIVE

Perforator arteries, the absence of an aneurysm discrete neck, and the often-extensive nature of posterior circulation fusiform aneurysms present treatment challenges. There have been advances in microsurgical and endovascular approaches, including flow diversion, and the authors sought to review these treatments in a long-term series at their neurovascular referral center.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective chart review from 1990 to 2018. Primary outcomes were modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at follow-up. The authors also examined neurological complication rates. Using regression techniques, they reviewed independent and dependent variables, including presenting features, aneurysm location and size, surgical approach, and pretreatment and posttreatment thrombosis.

RESULTS

Eighty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 53 years, and 49 (58%) were female. Forty-one (49%) patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Aneurysms were located on the vertebral artery (VA) or posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in 50 (60%) patients, basilar artery (BA) or vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) in 22 (26%), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in 12 (14%). Thirty-one (37%) patients were treated with microsurgical and 53 (63%) with endovascular approaches. Six aneurysms were treated with endovascular flow diversion. The authors found moderate disability or better (mRS score ≤ 3) in 85% of the patients at a mean 14-month follow-up. The GOS score was ≥ 4 in 82% of the patients. The overall neurological complication rate was 12%. In the regression analysis, patients with VA or PICA aneurysms had better functional outcomes than the other groups (p < 0.001). Endovascular strategies were associated with better outcomes for BA-VBJ aneurysms (p < 0.01), but microsurgery was associated with better outcomes for VA-PICA and PCA aneurysms (p < 0.05). There were no other significant associations between patient, aneurysm characteristics, or treatment features and neurological complications (p > 0.05). Patients treated with flow diversion had more complications than those who underwent other endovascular and microsurgical strategies, but the difference was not significant in regression models.

CONCLUSIONS

Posterior circulation fusiform aneurysms remain a challenging aneurysm subtype, but an interdisciplinary treatment approach can result in good outcomes. While flow diversion is a useful addition to the armamentarium, traditional endovascular and microsurgical techniques continue to offer effective options.

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Ephraim W. Church, Rabia Qaiser, Teresa E. Bell-Stephens, Mark G. Bigder, Eric K. Chow, Summer S. Han, Yasser Y. El-Sayed and Gary K. Steinberg

OBJECTIVE

Moyamoya disease (MMD) disproportionately affects young to middle-aged women. The main treatment for this challenging disease is cerebral bypass surgery. Vascular neurosurgeons often need to counsel women regarding pregnancy following bypass for MMD, but there is a paucity of data. The authors set out to examine neurological and obstetric outcomes in an extensive cohort of MMD patients who had pregnancies following cerebral revascularization at the Stanford Medical Center.

METHODS

The authors identified all patients at their institution who underwent cerebral bypass for MMD from 1990 through 2018 and who later became pregnant. Some of these patients also had pregnancies prior to undergoing bypass surgery, and the authors examined these pregnancies as well. They performed a chart review and brief telephone survey to identify obstetric complications, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), and strokes. Neurological and obstetric outcomes were compared to published rates. They also compared pre- and post-bypass pregnancy complication rates using logistic regression techniques.

RESULTS

There were 71 pregnancies among 56 women whose mean age was 30.5 years. Among 59 post-bypass pregnancies, there were 5 (8%) perinatal TIAs. There were no MRI-confirmed strokes or strokes with residual deficits. Among 12 pre-bypass pregnancies, there were 3 (25%) TIAs and 2 (17%) MRI-confirmed strokes. There were no hemorrhagic complications in either group. In the generalized estimating equations analysis, performing cerebral revascularization prior to pregnancy versus after pregnancy was associated with lower odds of perinatal stroke or TIA (OR 0.15, p = 0.0061). Nine pregnancies (13%) were complicated by preeclampsia, and there was one (1%) instance of eclampsia. The overall rate of cesarean delivery was 39%. There were 2 miscarriages, both occurring in the first trimester. There were no maternal deaths.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors present neurological and obstetric outcomes data in a large cohort of MMD patients. These data indicate that post-bypass pregnancy is accompanied by low complication rates. There were no ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes among post-bypass pregnant MMD patients. The rate of obstetric complications was low overall. The authors recommend close collaboration between the vascular neurosurgeon and the obstetrician regarding medical management, including blood pressure goals and continuation of low-dose aspirin.

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Harsh Deora, Manjul Tripathi, Manish Modi, Sandeep Mohindra, Aman Batish, Jenil Gurnani and Abhinav Agrahari