Nestor R. Gonzalez, Joshua R. Dusick, Mark Connolly, Firas Bounni, Neil A. Martin, Barbara Van de Wiele, David S. Liebeskind and Jeffrey L. Saver
Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) is a form of revascularization that has shown promising early results in the treatment of adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) and more recently in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease (ICASD). Herein the authors present the long-term results of a single-center experience with EDAS for adult MMD and ICASD.
Patients with ischemic symptoms despite intensive medical therapy were considered for EDAS. All patients undergoing EDAS were included. Clinical data, including recurrence of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and/or stroke, functional status, and death, were collected from a retrospective data set and a prospective cohort. Perren revascularization and American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) collateral grades were recorded from angiograms.
A total of 107 EDAS procedures were performed in 82 adults (36 with ICASD and 46 with MMD). During a median follow-up of 22 months, 2 (2.4%) patients had strokes; both patients were in the ICASD group. TIA-free survival and stroke-free survival analyses were performed using the product limit estimator (Kaplan-Meier) method. The probability of stroke-free survival at 2 years in the ICASD group was 94.3% (95% CI 80%–98.6%). No patient in the MMD group suffered a stroke. The probability of TIA-free survival at 2 years was 89.4% (95% CI 74.7%–96%) in ICASD and 99.7% (95% CI 87.5%–99.9%) in MMD. There were no hemorrhages or stroke-related deaths. Angiograms in 85.7% of ICASD and 92% of MMD patients demonstrated Perren Grade 3 and improvement in ASITN/SIR grade in all cases.
EDAS is well tolerated in adults with MMD and ICASD and improves collateral circulation to territories at risk. The rates of stroke after EDAS are lower than those reported with other treatments, including intensive medical therapy in patients with ICASD.
Matthew S. Erwood, Beverly C. Walters, Timothy M. Connolly, Amber S. Gordon, William R. Carroll, Bonita S. Agee, Bradley R. Carn and Mark N. Hadley
Dysphagia and vocal cord palsy (VCP) are common complications after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The reported incidence rates for dysphagia and VCP are variable. When videolaryngostroboscopy (VLS) is performed to assess vocal cord function after ACDF procedures, the incidence of VCP is reported to be as high as 22%. The incidence of dysphagia ranges widely, with estimates up to 71%. However, to the authors’ knowledge, there are no prospective studies that demonstrate the rates of VCP and dysphagia for reoperative ACDF. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of voice and swallowing disturbances before and after reoperative ACDF using a 2-team operative approach with comprehensive pre- and postoperative assessment of swallowing, direct vocal cord visualization, and clinical neurosurgical outcomes.
A convenience sample of sequential patients who were identified as requiring reoperative ACDF by the senior spinal neurosurgeon at the University of Alabama at Birmingham were enrolled in a prospective, nonrandomized study during the period from May 2010 until July 2014. Sixty-seven patients undergoing revision ACDF were enrolled using a 2-team approach with neurosurgery and otolaryngology. Dysphagia was assessed both preoperatively and postoperatively using the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), whereas VCP was assessed using direct visualization with VLS.
Five patients (7.5%) developed a new postoperative temporary VCP after reoperative ACDF. All of these cases resolved by 2 months postoperatively. There were no new instances of permanent VCP. Twenty-five patients had a new swallowing disturbance detected on FEES compared with their baseline assessment, with most being mild and requiring no intervention. Nearly 60% of patients showed a decrease in their postoperative MDADI scores, particularly within the physical subset.
A 2-team approach to reoperative ACDF was safe and effective, with no new cases of VCP on postoperative VLS. Dysphagia rates as assessed through the MDADI scale and FEES were consistent with other published reports.
2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010