Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Mark A. Granner x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Brian J. Dlouhy, Steven V. Viljoen, David K. Kung, Timothy W. Vogel, Mark A. Granner, Matthew A. Howard III and Hiroto Kawasaki

Object

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has demonstrated benefit in patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy. As in other therapies with mechanical devices, hardware failure occurs, most notably within the VNS lead, requiring replacement. However, the spiral-designed lead electrodes wrapped around the vagus nerve are often encased in dense scar tissue hampering dissection and removal. The objective in this study was to characterize VNS lead failure and lead revision surgery and to examine VNS efficacy after placement of a new electrode on the previously used segment of vagus nerve.

Methods

The authors reviewed all VNS lead revisions performed between October 2001 and August 2011 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Twenty-four patients underwent 25 lead revisions. In all cases, the helical electrodes were removed, and a new lead was placed on the previously used segment of vagus nerve. All inpatient and outpatient records of the 25 lead revisions were retrospectively reviewed.

Results

Four cases were second lead revisions, and 21 cases were first lead revisions. The average time to any revision was 5 years (range 1.8–11.1 years), with essentially no difference between a first and second lead revision. The most common reason for a revision was intrinsic lead failure resulting in high impedance (64%), and the most common symptom was increased seizure frequency (72%). The average duration of surgery for the initial implantation in the 15 patients whose VNS system was initially implanted at the authors' institution was much shorter (94 minutes) than the average duration of lead revision surgery (173 minutes). However, there was a significant trend toward shorter surgical times as more revision surgeries were performed. Sixteen of the 25 cases of lead revision were followed up for more than 3 months. In 15 of these 16 cases, the revision was as effective as the previous VNS lead. In most of these cases, both the severity and frequency of seizures were decreased to levels similar to those following the previous implantation procedure. Only 1 complication occurred, and there were no postoperative infections.

Conclusions

Lead revision surgery involving the placement of a new electrode at the previously used segment of vagus nerve is effective at decreasing the seizure burden to an extent similar to that obtained following the initial VNS implantation. Even with multiple lead revisions, patients can obtain VNS efficacy similar to that following the initial lead implantation. There is a learning curve with revision surgery, and overall the duration of surgery is longer than for the initial implantation. Note, however, that complications and infection are rare.

Restricted access

Matthew A. Howard III, Igor O. Volkov, Mark A. Granner, Hanna M. Damasio, Michael C. Ollendieck and Hans E. Bakken

✓ For several decades, important scientific information has been gained from in vivo microelectrode recordings of individual human cerebral cortical neurons in patients with epilepsy. The experimental methods used, however, are technically complex and require a highly skilled intraoperative team. There are also significant experimental time limitations, as well as constraints on the type of behavioral tests conducted, and the brain regions that may be safely studied. In this report, a new method is described for obtaining in vivo microelectrode recordings using a hybrid depth electrode (HDE). High-impedance research recording contacts are interspersed between low-impedance clinical electroencephalographic (EEG) contacts along the HDE shaft. The HDE has the same external physical properties as a standard clinical depth electrode (DE). Following preclinical laboratory testing, 15 HDEs were used in the evaluation of six patients with medically refractory epilepsy. High-quality EEG recordings were obtained in all cases (two acute intraoperative, four from the chronic epilepsy monitoring unit). Action potentials from individual neurons were successfully recorded during all experimental sessions; however, the chronic preparations were clearly superior. Chronic HDEs are placed using a standard stereotactic system, and the locations of recording contacts are documented on a postimplantation imaging study. The quality of the chronic research recordings was excellent over study periods ranging from 5 to 14 days. The patients rested comfortably on the ward and were able to cooperate with complex experimental instructions. Basic neuroscientists participated fully in all aspects of the chronic investigations. The use of an HDE in place of a standard clinical DE may now allow detailed physiological investigations of any brain region targeted for clinical DE implantation.

Restricted access

Matthew A. Howard III, Matthew B. Dobbs, Tereasa M. Simonson, William E. LaVelle and Mark A. Granner

✓ As computer-interactive technologies become more widely used in neurosurgery, radiology, and radiation therapy, the need for an optimum skull fiducial marker system increases. In the past, intracranial localization methods required precisely machined metal frames and rigid pin fixation to the skull. Recently, this function has been performed using “frameless” computer-based systems that calculate brain position relative to a series of external reference points, the most accurate of which are screwed directly into the skull. A penetrating fiducial marker system, however, is not well suited for applications requiring multiple volume registrations over an extended time period. We describe a new skull fiducial marker system that attaches to the maxillary teeth and can be used repeatedly on different occasions. A curved bar, known as a Banana Bar (BB) extends backward from a custom mouthpiece around the side of the patient's head; the bar contains sites of attachment for screw-in radiographic fiducial markers. Repositioning accuracy was quantitated using a photographic technique. A BB prototype was constructed and tested in three subjects. The BB weighs less than 100 g and can be comfortably held in position for up to 30 minutes. It takes less than 1 minute to screw in the mouthpiece and only seconds to secure the BB to the teeth. One hundred twenty photographic measurements were analyzed from 60 repositionings over a minimum 3-week period. Standard deviations for the measurement series ranged from 0.29 to 0.86 mm. Results suggest that the BB may be an inexpensive, efficient, and accurate method for providing the external reference points needed for a wide range of emerging computer-interactive applications.

Restricted access

Yasunori Nagahama, Alan J. Schmitt, Brian J. Dlouhy, Adam S. Vesole, Phillip E. Gander, Christopher K. Kovach, Daichi Nakagawa, Mark A. Granner, Matthew A. Howard III and Hiroto Kawasaki

OBJECTIVE

The epileptogenic zones in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) involve regions outside the typical extent of anterior temporal lobectomy (i.e., “temporal plus epilepsy”), including portions of the supratemporal plane (STP). Failure to identify this subset of patients and adjust the surgical plan accordingly results in suboptimum surgical outcomes. There are unique technical challenges associated with obtaining recordings from the STP. The authors sought to examine the clinical utility and safety of placing depth electrodes within the STP in patients with TLE.

METHODS

This study is a retrospective review and analysis of all cases in which patients underwent intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) with use of at least one STP depth electrode over the 10 years from January 2006 through December 2015 at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Basic clinical information was collected, including the presence of ictal auditory symptoms, electrode coverage, monitoring results, resection extent, outcomes, and complications. Additionally, cases in which the temporal lobe was primarily or secondarily involved in seizure onset and propagation were categorized based upon how rapidly epileptic activity was observed within the STP following seizure onsets: within 1 second, between 1 and 15 seconds, after 15 seconds, and not involved.

RESULTS

Fifty-two patients underwent iEEG with STP coverage, with 1 STP electrode used in 45 (86.5%) cases and 2 STP electrodes in the other cases. There were no complications related to STP electrode placement. Of 42 cases in which the temporal lobe was primarily or secondarily involved, seizure activity was recorded from the STP in 36 cases (85.7%): in 5 cases (11.9%) within 1 second, in 5 (11.9%) between 1 and 15 seconds, and in 26 (61.9%) more than 15 seconds following seizure onset. Seizure outcomes inversely correlated with rapid ictal involvement of the STP (Engel class I achieved in 25%, 67%, and 82% of patients in the above categories, respectively). All patients without ictal STP involvement achieved seizure freedom. Only 4 (11.1%) patients with STP ictal involvement reported auditory symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

Ictal involvement of the STP is common even in the absence of auditory symptoms and can be effectively detected by the STP electrodes. These electrodes are safe to implant and provide useful prognostic information.

Restricted access

Yasunori Nagahama, Alan J. Schmitt, Daichi Nakagawa, Adam S. Vesole, Janina Kamm, Christopher K. Kovach, David Hasan, Mark Granner, Brian J. Dlouhy, Matthew A. Howard III and Hiroto Kawasaki

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) provides valuable information that guides clinical decision-making in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, but it carries technical challenges and risks. The technical approaches used and reported rates of complications vary across institutions and evolve over time with increasing experience. In this report, the authors describe the strategy at the University of Iowa using both surface and depth electrodes and analyze outcomes and complications.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review and analysis of all patients who underwent craniotomy and electrode implantation from January 2006 through December 2015 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. The basic demographic and clinical information was collected, including electrode coverage, monitoring results, outcomes, and complications. The correlations between clinically significant complications with various clinical variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate a change in the rate of complications over the study period.

RESULTS

Ninety-one patients (mean age 29 ± 14 years, range 3–62 years), including 22 pediatric patients, underwent iEEG. Subdural surface (grid and/or strip) electrodes were utilized in all patients, and depth electrodes were also placed in 89 (97.8%) patients. The total number of electrode contacts placed per patient averaged 151 ± 58. The duration of invasive monitoring averaged 12.0 ± 5.1 days. In 84 (92.3%) patients, a seizure focus was localized by ictal onset (82 cases) or inferred based on interictal discharges (2 patients). Localization was achieved based on data obtained from surface electrodes alone (29 patients), depth electrodes alone (13 patients), or a combination of both surface and depth electrodes (42 patients). Seventy-two (79.1%) patients ultimately underwent resective surgery. Forty-seven (65.3%) and 18 (25.0%) patients achieved modified Engel class I and II outcomes, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 3.9 ± 2.9 (range 0.1–10.5) years. Clinically significant complications occurred in 8 patients, including hematoma in 3 (3.3%) patients, infection/osteomyelitis in 3 (3.3%) patients, and edema/compression in 2 (2.2%) patients. One patient developed a permanent neurological deficit (1.1%), and there were no deaths. The hemorrhagic and edema/compression complications correlated significantly with the total number of electrode contacts (p = 0.01), but not with age, a history of prior cranial surgery, laterality, monitoring duration, and the number of each electrode type. The small number of infectious complications precluded multivariate analysis. The number of complications decreased from 5 of 36 cases (13.9%) to 3 of 55 cases (5.5%) during the first and last 5 years, respectively, but this change was not statistically significant (p = 0.26).

CONCLUSIONS

An iEEG implantation strategy that makes use of both surface and depth electrodes is safe and effective at identifying seizure foci in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. With experience and iterative refinement of technical surgical details, the risk of complications has decreased over time.

Restricted access

Yasunori Nagahama, Alan J. Schmitt, Daichi Nakagawa, Adam S. Vesole, Janina Kamm, Christopher K. Kovach, David Hasan, Mark Granner, Brian J. Dlouhy, Matthew A. Howard III and Hiroto Kawasaki

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) provides valuable information that guides clinical decision-making in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, but it carries technical challenges and risks. The technical approaches used and reported rates of complications vary across institutions and evolve over time with increasing experience. In this report, the authors describe the strategy at the University of Iowa using both surface and depth electrodes and analyze outcomes and complications.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review and analysis of all patients who underwent craniotomy and electrode implantation from January 2006 through December 2015 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. The basic demographic and clinical information was collected, including electrode coverage, monitoring results, outcomes, and complications. The correlations between clinically significant complications with various clinical variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate a change in the rate of complications over the study period.

RESULTS

Ninety-one patients (mean age 29 ± 14 years, range 3–62 years), including 22 pediatric patients, underwent iEEG. Subdural surface (grid and/or strip) electrodes were utilized in all patients, and depth electrodes were also placed in 89 (97.8%) patients. The total number of electrode contacts placed per patient averaged 151 ± 58. The duration of invasive monitoring averaged 12.0 ± 5.1 days. In 84 (92.3%) patients, a seizure focus was localized by ictal onset (82 cases) or inferred based on interictal discharges (2 patients). Localization was achieved based on data obtained from surface electrodes alone (29 patients), depth electrodes alone (13 patients), or a combination of both surface and depth electrodes (42 patients). Seventy-two (79.1%) patients ultimately underwent resective surgery. Forty-seven (65.3%) and 18 (25.0%) patients achieved modified Engel class I and II outcomes, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 3.9 ± 2.9 (range 0.1–10.5) years. Clinically significant complications occurred in 8 patients, including hematoma in 3 (3.3%) patients, infection/osteomyelitis in 3 (3.3%) patients, and edema/compression in 2 (2.2%) patients. One patient developed a permanent neurological deficit (1.1%), and there were no deaths. The hemorrhagic and edema/compression complications correlated significantly with the total number of electrode contacts (p = 0.01), but not with age, a history of prior cranial surgery, laterality, monitoring duration, and the number of each electrode type. The small number of infectious complications precluded multivariate analysis. The number of complications decreased from 5 of 36 cases (13.9%) to 3 of 55 cases (5.5%) during the first and last 5 years, respectively, but this change was not statistically significant (p = 0.26).

CONCLUSIONS

An iEEG implantation strategy that makes use of both surface and depth electrodes is safe and effective at identifying seizure foci in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. With experience and iterative refinement of technical surgical details, the risk of complications has decreased over time.