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Lucia Ricci-Vitiani, Francesco Pierconti, Maria Laura Falchetti, Giovanna Petrucci, Giulio Maira, Ruggero De Maria, Luigi Maria Larocca and Roberto Pallini

✓ Permanent cell cultures are invaluable tools for understanding the biological characteristics of tumors. In the present study the authors report on the establishment of permanent human cell lines from three cases of aggressive chordomas of the clival region. All of the parental tumors showed telomerase activity. Cultured chordoma cells had a doubling time of 5 to 7 days and grew as a monolayer of cells that retained both the immunophenotype and the p53 status of the parental tumor. In vitro, chordoma cells overexpressed telomerase, supporting the hypothesis that this enzyme is required for the immortalization process.

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Roberto Pallini, Francesco Pierconti, Maria Laura Falchetti, Daniela D'Arcangelo, Eduardo Fernandez, Giulio Maira, Ettore D'Ambrosio and Luigi Maria Larocca

Object. Evidence from recent in vitro studies indicates that reactivation of telomerase, the enzyme that synthesizes the telomere ends of chromosomes, is a crucial event in the unlimited clonal expansion of endothelial cells that precedes the neoplastic conversion of these cells. It is known that high-grade gliomas express telomerase and that, in these neoplasms, proliferating endothelial cells may undergo transformational changes with development of sarcomatous components within the primitive tumor. To assess whether telomerase is involved in the endothelial cell proliferation that characterizes brain tumor angiogenesis, the authors investigated at the single-cell level the expression of messenger (m)RNA for the human telomerase catalytic subunit human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by vascular cells of astrocytic tumors.

Methods. The in situ hybridization (ISH) method was performed by processing histological sections with specific riboprobes for hTERT and for c-myc, an oncogene that is known to upregulate hTERT. Results of the ISH studies were compared with proliferative activity, as estimated by Ki-67 immunostaining. The expression of hTERT mRNA by vascular endothelial cells was related to the histological grade of the tumor because it was detected in five (29%) of 17 low-grade astrocytomas, nine (56%) of 16 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 19 (100%) of 19 glioblastomas multiforme (GBMs). Expression of c-myc mRNA was strictly correlated with that of hTERT mRNA. In low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas, a dissociation was noted between hTERT mRNA expression and the proliferation rate of endothelial cells. Conversely, GBMs displayed a significant correlation between the level of hTERT mRNA expression and endothelial cell proliferation. Data from an in vitro assay in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated to proliferate by adding vascular endothelial growth factor and an ISH study of newly formed vessels surrounding brain infarcts confirmed that expression of hTERT mRNA does not merely reflect the proliferative status of endothelial cells but represents a specific feature of brain tumor neovascularization.

Conclusions. The results of this study are consistent with a role of telomerase in the angiogenesis of astrocytic tumors. Expression of hTERT mRNA by tumor vascular cells is an early event during the progression of astrocytic tumors, which precedes endothelial cell proliferation and may represent a first sign of dedifferentiation. Other than elucidating the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis, these results encourage research on antitelomerase drugs for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

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Roberto Pallini, Giulio Maira, Francesco Pierconti, Maria Laura Falchetti, Ester Alvino, Graziella Cimino-Reale, Eduardo Fernandez, Ettore D'Ambrosio and Luigi Maria Larocca

Object. Chordomas of the skull base are generally regarded as slow-growing tumors; however, approximately 20% of these lesions have been shown to recur as early as 1 year postsurgery. The classic pathological paradigms are poor predictors of outcome, and additional markers are needed to identify patients at risk for early tumor recurrence. In this study the authors describe such a marker.

Methods. In a series of 26 patients with chordomas of the skull base, the authors investigated the relationship between the biological behavior of the tumor, which was determined according to the interval for its recurrence and volume doubling time, and several pathological and molecular features, which included the histological variant, proliferative activity, mutation of p53 protein, expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) messenger (m)RNA, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and microsatellite instability. The major finding in this study was that hTERT mRNA expression in chordoma cells identifies those tumors that exhibit unusually fast rates of growth. The expression of hTERT mRNA was frequently associated with mutation of p53 protein, indicating that telomerase dysfunction combines with abnormal p53 function to initiate the unrestrained clonal expansion of the tumor cells. In cases in which the tumor was partially removed, mutation of p53 protein and expression of hTERT mRNA predicted increased doubling time for residual tumor as well as the probability of tumor recurrence. Cell proliferation, as investigated using the Ki-67 method, was significantly related to the tumor doubling time; however, the authors found that the pattern of cell proliferation was not homogeneous throughout the chordoma tissue, and that the proliferative index might change by a factor as high as 8 among different regions of the same tumor. The LOH and microsatellite instability do not seem to affect the prognosis of skull base chordomas.

Conclusions. Reactivation of telomerase in chordomas is a reliable predictor of outcome. The ability to predict the biological behavior of chordomas might have immediate implications in the management of this disease in patients who undergo surgery.

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Francesco Facchiano, Eduardo Fernandez, Salvatore Mancarella, Giulio Maira, Massimo Miscusi, Daniela D'Arcangelo, Graziella Cimino-Reale, Maria Laura Falchetti, Maurizio C. Capogrossi and Roberto Pallini

Object. After spinal cord transection in adult rats, the axons of the corticospinal tract (CST) degenerate retrogradely and do not regenerate. This phenomenon is thought to be related to either secondary ischemia or deficiency of growth factors. To overcome the deficiency of both blood flow and growth factors, the authors added exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) to the transected spinal cord either as recombinant protein alone or combined with an adenovirus coding for VEGF165. Because most growth factors are rapidly inactivated in the extracellular environment, the authors used an adenovirus coding for VEGF165 to maintain its activity for several days.

Methods. In adult rats, the dorsal two thirds of the spinal cord were transected at the T-8 level. In experimental rats, either human recombinant VEGF165 or a combination of this factor and a replication-defective adenovirus coding for VEGF165 (Ad.CMV.VEGF165) was applied at the lesion site. Both recombinant VEGF165 alone and combined with Ad.CMV.VEGF165 were mixed with Matrigel, which is a reconstituted membrane basement protein extract. Control rats received Matrigel alone or Matrigel plus an adenoviral vector containing the LACZ gene (Ad.CMV.LACZ). Thirty days after spinal cord injury, the number of newly formed blood vessels was assessed in the injured area. In addition, the sensorimotor cortex was injected with anterogradely transported horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to label the CST axons in the spinal cord and to evaluate the extent of retrograde axonal degeneration and regeneration. Gene transfer was assessed using semiquantitative reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human VEGF and β-galactosidase expression in injured rats treated with Matrigel plus Ad.CMV.LACZ, Matrigel plus Ad.CMV.VEGF165, and untreated injured rats.

A strong gene transfer in the spinal cord tissue of adenovirus-treated rats was found from Day 3 to Day 10 postinjury, confirming infection. In the injured spinal cord area, a significant increase of blood vessels (300% over control, p < 0.005) occurred both in rats treated with recombinant VEGF165 alone and in those treated with the combination of recombinant VEGF165 and Ad.CMV.VEGF165. Also, in both of these groups of animals the retrograde degeneration of CST axons was significantly reduced compared with rats treated with Matrigel alone or Matrigel plus Ad.CMV.LACZ. Furthermore, in rats treated with recombinant VEGF165 alone or combined with Ad.CMV.VEGF165, a few HRP-labeled CST axons, which were not detectable in control rats, were seen distal to the spinal cord injury, indicating some regeneration across the injured area.

Conclusions. These results indicate that locally applied VEGF exerts angiogenic as well as neurotrophic effects in the injured spinal cord of rats.