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Hydrodynamic properties of the Certas hydrocephalus shunt

Laboratory investigation

Zofia Czosnyka, John D. Pickard, and Marek Czosnyka


Independent testing of hydrocephalus shunts provides information about the quality of CSF drainage after shunt implantation. Moreover, hydrodynamic parameters of a valve assessed in the laboratory create a comparative pattern for testing of shunt performance in vivo. This study sought to assess the hydrodynamic parameters of the Certas valve, a new model of a hydrocephalus shunt.


The Certas valve is an adjustable ball-on-spring hydrocephalus valve. It can be adjusted magnetically in vivo in 7 steps, equally distributed within the therapeutic limit for hydrocephalus, and the eighth step at high pressures intended to block CSF drainage. The magnetically adjustable rotor is designed to prevent accidental readjustment of the valve in a magnetic field, including clinical MRI.


The pressure-flow performance curves, as well as the operating, opening, and closing pressures, were stable, fell within the specified limits, and changed according to the adjusted performance levels. The valve at settings 1–7 demonstrated low hydrodynamic resistance of 1.4 mm Hg/ml/min, increasing to 5.1 mm Hg/ml/min after connection of a distal drain provided by the manufacturer. At performance Level 8 the hydrodynamic resistance was greater than 20 mm Hg/ml/min. External programming of the valve proved to be easy and reliable. The valve is safe in 3-T MRI and the performance level of the valve is unlikely to be changed. However, with the valve implanted, distortion of the image is substantial. Integration of the valve with the SiphonGuard limits the drainage rate.


In the laboratory the Certas valve appears to be a reliable differential-pressure adjustable valve. Laboratory evaluation should be supplemented by results of a clinical audit in the future.

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Pulsatility Index

Marek Czosnyka

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Autoregulation-Oriented Strategy

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Pulsatility Index

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Editorial: Patient-specific intracranial pressure

Oren Sagher

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Evaluation of the transient hyperemic response test in head-injured patients

Piotr Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Kirkpatrick, and John D. Pickard

✓ The transient hyperemic response test has been shown to provide an index of cerebral autoregulation in healthy individuals and in patients who have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this study, the test was applied to patients who had received a severe head injury, and the value of the test was assessed by comparing its result with the individual's clinical condition (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), transcranial Doppler wave form—derived index for cerebral autoregulation (relationship between the CPP and the middle cerebral artery flow velocity), and outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score).

Forty-seven patients, aged 16 to 63 years, with head injuries were included in the study. Signals of intracranial pressure, arterial blood pressure, flow velocity, and cortical microcirculatory flux were digitized and recorded for a period of 30 minutes using special computer software. Two carotid compressions were performed at the beginning of each recording. The transient hyperemic response ratio (THRR: the ratio of the hyperemic flow velocity recorded after carotid release and the precompression baseline flow velocity) was calculated, as was the correlation coefficient Sx used to describe the relationship between slow fluctuations in the systolic flow velocity and CPP throughout the period of recording.

No significant changes in CPP were found during compression. There was a significant correlation between the THRR and the Sx (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001). The hyperemic response proved to be lower in patients who exhibited a poor clinical grade at presentation (GCS scores < 6, p = 0.01) and lower in patients achieving a poor outcome (GOS scores of 3, 4, and 5, p = 0.003). Loss of postcompression hyperemia occurred when the CPP fell below 50 mm Hg.

The carotid compression test provides a simple index of cerebral autoregulation that is relevant to the clinical condition and outcome of the severely head injured patient.

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Letter to the Editor. Development of periventricular lucency with low CSF pressure

Ewa Szczepek and Waldemar Koszewski

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Age and Outcome

Kathrin König, Hans E. Heissler, and E. Rickels

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Imaging normal pressure hydrocephalus: theories, techniques, and challenges

Nicole C. H. Keong, Alonso Pena, Stephen J. Price, Marek Czosnyka, Zofia Czosnyka, and John D. Pickard

The pathophysiology of NPH continues to provoke debate. Although guidelines and best-practice recommendations are well established, there remains a lack of consensus about the role of individual imaging modalities in characterizing specific features of the condition and predicting the success of CSF shunting. Variability of clinical presentation and imperfect responsiveness to shunting are obstacles to the application of novel imaging techniques. Few studies have sought to interpret imaging findings in the context of theories of NPH pathogenesis. In this paper, the authors discuss the major streams of thought for the evolution of NPH and the relevance of key imaging studies contributing to the understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex condition.

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Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus