Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Marcus Czabanka x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Marcus Czabanka, Peter Vajkoczy, Peter Schmiedek, and Peter Horn

Object

Different revascularization procedures are used in the treatment of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of direct and indirect revascularization procedures to the restoration of collateral blood supply in adult and pediatric patients with MMD.

Methods

The authors performed 39 combined cerebral revascularization procedures (standard extraintracranial bypass [STA-MCA bypass] plus encephalomyosynangiosis [EMS]) in 10 pediatric and 10 adult patients. All patients underwent physical examination and digital subtraction angiography before and 6 months after surgery. The STA-MCA bypass and EMS function were graded as Grade I (poor), II (moderate), or III (good) on the basis of the angiograms.

Results

In pediatric patients, bypass function was Grade I in 12, Grade II in 8, and Grade III in 0 hemispheres; EMS function was Grade I in 0, Grade II in 12, and Grade III in 8 hemispheres. In the adult patients, bypass function was Grade I in 8, Grade II in 8, and Grade III in 3 hemispheres; EMS function was Grade I in 10 hemispheres, Grade II in 5, and Grade III in 1 hemisphere. In the pediatric patients disease was classified as improved in 14 hemispheres on the basis of clinical results and stable in 6. In the adults it was classified as improved in 12 hemispheres stable in 7 hemispheres.

Conclusions

Combined revascularization led to good angiographic and clinical results in both patient populations. Especially in pediatric patients, EMS represents a suitable alternative to bypass surgery.

Restricted access

Pablo Gerardo Peña-Tapia, Andre Kemmling, Marcus Czabanka, Peter Vajkoczy and Peter Schmiedek

Object

The objective of this report is to describe a new approach to identify the optimal cortical target point for extracranial–intracranial (EC–IC) bypass surgery, to reliably find suitable recipient vessels for the anastomosis.

Methods

Thirty consecutive patients (17 men and 13 women; mean age 54.6 ± 11.79 years [± standard deviation]) with hemodynamic cerebrovascular insufficiency due to stenoocclusive arterial disease underwent EC–IC bypass surgery. The end of the Sylvian fissure was identified preoperatively using a specially designed template and external landmarks. At surgery, a 3-cm trephination was made, centered over the target point as determined by the template. The number, diameter, and length of the exposed cortical arteries were assessed using photographs and indocyanine green (ICG) angiograms.

Results

At least 1 recipient artery appropriate for anastomosis (≥ 1 mm) was found in every craniectomy. The mean number of suitable recipient arteries per craniotomy was 2.09 ± 0.87, the mean diameter was 1.28 ± 0.24 mm, and the mean length 10.83 ± 4.87 mm. Bypass patency was confirmed by intraoperative ICG angiography, postoperative computed tomography angiography, and digital subtraction angiography, and reached 100%.

Conclusions

Performing a 3-cm craniectomy over the described target point, reliably allows access to suitable recipient arteries for EC–IC bypass surgery.

Restricted access

Marcus Czabanka, Muhammad Ali, Peter Schmiedek, Peter Vajkoczy and Michael T. Lawton

Endovascular occlusion of hemorrhagic dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery (VA) is not possible when the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) originates from the dissecting aneurysm or when the contralateral VA provides inadequate collateral blood flow to the distal basilar circulation. The authors introduce a VA-PICA bypass with radial artery interposition graft and aneurysm trapping as an alternative approach and describe 2 cases in which this bypass was used to treat hemorrhagic dissecting VA aneurysms.

The VA-PICA bypass is performed via a standard far lateral approach. An end-to-side anastomosis between the radial artery graft and the PICA at the level of the caudal loop is performed first, and an end-to-side anastomosis is performed between the V3 segment and the proximal end of the radial artery graft. A 56-year-old woman harbored a hemorrhagic dissecting VA aneurysm incorporating the origin of the PICA. Endovascular treatment failed, with aneurysm refilling on follow-up angiography. A 65-year-old man had a hemorrhagic dissecting VA aneurysm and a hypoplastic contralateral VA. Both patients were treated with the VA-PICA bypass and aneurysm trapping, with adequate filling of the PICA territory in the first patient and both the PICA territory and the basilar circulation in the second patient.

Vertebral artery–PICA bypass with radial artery interposition graft and subsequent trapping of the dissected VA segment is an alternative to occipital artery–PICA and PICA-PICA bypass for the treatment of hemorrhagic dissecting VA aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular occlusion.

Full access

Marcus Czabanka, Julien Haemmerli, Nils Hecht, Bettina Foehre, Klaus Arden, Thomas Liebig, Johannes Woitzik and Peter Vajkoczy

OBJECTIVE

Spinal navigation techniques for surgical fixation of unstable C1–2 pathologies are challenged by complex osseous and neurovascular anatomy, instability of the pathology, and unreliable preoperative registration techniques. An intraoperative CT scanner with autoregistration of C-1 and C-2 promises sufficient accuracy of spinal navigation without the need for further registration procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy and reliability of posterior C1–2 fixation using intraoperative mobile CT scanner–guided navigation.

METHODS

In the period from July 2014 to February 2016, 10 consecutive patients with instability of C1–2 underwent posterior fixation using C-2 pedicle screws and C-1 lateral mass screws, and 2 patients underwent posterior fixation from C-1 to C-3. Spinal navigation was performed using intraoperative mobile CT. Following navigated screw insertion in C-1 and C-2, intraoperative CT was repeated to check for the accuracy of screw placement. In this study, the accuracy of screw positioning was retrospectively analyzed and graded by an independent observer.

RESULTS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the records of 10 females and 2 males, with a mean age of 80.7 ± 4.95 years (range 42–90 years). Unstable pathologies, which were verified by fracture dislocation or by flexion/extension radiographs, included 8 Anderson Type II fractures, 1 unstable Anderson Type III fracture, 1 hangman fracture Levine Effendi Ia, 1 complex hangman-Anderson Type III fracture, and 1 destructive rheumatoid arthritis of C1–2. In 4 patients, critical anatomy was observed: high-riding vertebral artery (3 patients) and arthritis-induced partial osseous destruction of the C-1 lateral mass (1 patient). A total of 48 navigated screws were placed. Correct screw positioning was observed in 47 screws (97.9%). Minor pedicle breach was observed in 1 screw (2.1%). No screw displacement occurred (accuracy rate 97.9%).

CONCLUSION

Spinal navigation using intraoperative mobile CT scanning was reliable and safe for posterior fixation in unstable C1–2 pathologies with high accuracy in this patient series.

Restricted access

Jochen Tuettenberg, Marcus Czabanka, Peter Horn, Johannes Woitzik, Martin Barth, Claudius Thomé, Peter Vajkoczy, Peter Schmiedek and Elke Muench

Object

Several approaches have been established for the treatment of intracranial hypertension; however, a considerable number of patients remain unresponsive to even aggressive therapeutic strategies. Lumbar CSF drainage has been contraindicated in the setting of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) because of possible cerebral herniation. The authors of this study investigated the efficacy and safety of controlled lumbar CSF drainage in patients suffering from intracranial hypertension following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Methods

The authors prospectively evaluated 100 patients—45 with TBI and 55 with SAH—having a mean age of 43.7 ± 15.7 years (mean ± SD) and suffering from refractory intracranial hypertension (ICP > 20 mm Hg). Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) before and after the initiation of lumbar CSF drainage as well as related complications were documented. Patient outcomes were assessed 6 months after injury.

Results

The application of lumbar CSF drainage led to a significant reduction in ICP from 32.7 ± 10.9 to 13.4 ± 5.9 mm Hg (p < 0.05) and an increase in CPP from 70.6 ± 18.2 to 86.2 ± 15.4 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Cerebral herniation with a lethal outcome occurred in 6% of patients. Thirty-six patients had a favorable outcome, 12 were severely disabled, 7 remained in a persistent vegetative state, and 45 died.

Conclusions

Lumbar drainage of CSF led to a significant and clinically relevant reduction in ICP. The risk of cerebral herniation can be minimized by performing lumbar drainage only in cases with discernible basal cisterns.

Free access

Güliz Acker, Nicolas Schlinkmann, Lucius Fekonja, Lukas Grünwald, Juliane Hardt, Marcus Czabanka and Peter Vajkoczy

OBJECTIVE

Moyamoya vasculopathy (MMV) is a steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease that can be treated by a surgical revascularization. All the revascularization techniques influence the blood supply of the scalp, with a risk for wound healing disorders. The authors’ aim was to analyze the wound healing process in the patients who underwent a direct or combined bypass surgery with a focus on different skin incisions.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified all the patients with MMV who were treated surgically in their institution. Subsequently, they analyzed demographic data, clinical symptoms, surgical treatment, and detailed history of complications. Based on the evolution of their surgical techniques and the revascularization strategy to be used, the authors applied the following skin incisions: linear incision, curved incision, incomplete Y incision, and complete Y incision. Group comparisons regarding wound healing disorders were performed with significance testing using Fisher’s exact test.

RESULTS

The authors identified 172 patients with MMV (61.6% moyamoya disease, 7% unilateral moyamoya disease, 29.7% moyamoya syndrome, and 1.7% unilateral moyamoya syndrome), of whom 124 underwent bilateral operations. One-quarter of the patients were juveniles. A total of 236 hemispheres were included in the analysis, of which 27.9% were treated by a combined procedure with encephalomyosynangiosis. Overall, 5.1% major and 1.7% minor wound complications occurred. The overall wound complication rate was lower in direct revascularization compared to combined revascularization (3% vs 15.2%). The lowest incidence of wound healing disorders was found in the linear incision group for the parietal superficial temporal artery branch (1.6%), followed by the incomplete Y incision group for the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery (3.8%) in the direct bypass group. In the combined revascularization cohort, major or minor wound disorders appeared in 14.3% and 4.8%, respectively, in the complete Y incision group and in 4.2% (for both major and minor) in the curved incision group. The complete Y incision caused significantly more wound healing disorders compared to the remaining incision types (17.1% vs 3.1%, p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS

Wound healing disorders are one of the major complications of revascularization surgery. Their incidence depends on the revascularization strategy and skin incision applied, with a complete Y incision giving the worst results.