The occurrence of transdural arterial recruitment (TDAR) in association with brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is uncommon, and the reason for TDAR is not understood. The aim of this cohort study was to examine patient and bAVM characteristics associated with TDAR and the implications of TDAR on management.
A prospective surgical database of bAVMs was examined. Cases previously treated elsewhere or incompletely examined by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) assessment were excluded. Three studies of this cohort were performed, as follows: characteristics associated with TDAR, the relationship between TDAR and neurological deficits unassociated with hemorrhage (NDUH), and the impact of TDAR on outcome from surgery. Regression models were performed.
Of 769 patients with complete DSA who had no previous treatment, 51 (6.6%) were found to have TDAR. The presence of TDAR was associated with increasing age (p < 0.01; OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.07); presentation with NDUH (p < 0.01; OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.29–5.71); increasing size of the bAVM (p < 0.01; OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.29–1.91); and combined supply from both anterior and posterior circulations (p = 0.02; OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.17–4.78). Further analysis of TDAR cases comparing those with and without NDUH found an association of larger size (6.6 cm [2.9 SD] compared with 4.7 cm [1.8 SD]; p < 0.01) and combined supply from both anterior and posterior circulations (relative risk 2.5; 95% CI 1.0–6.2; p = 0.04) to be associated with an NDUH presentation.
For the 632 patients undergoing surgery there was an increased risk of complications (where this produced a new permanent neurological deficit at 12 months represented by a modified Rankin Scale score of > 1) with the following variables: size; location in eloquent brain; deep venous drainage; increasing age; and no presentation with hemorrhage. The presence of TDAR was not associated with an increased risk of complications from surgery.
The authors found that TDAR occurs in older patients with larger bAVMs, and that TDAR is also more likely to be associated with bAVMs presenting with NDUH. The likely explanation for the presence of TDAR is a secondary recruitment arising as a consequence of shear stress, rather than a primary vascular supply present from the earliest development of the bAVM.