Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is mainly treated with an endovascular approach. Two major treatment advances include transvenous embolization (TVE) with coils in 1989 and, more recently, transarterial embolization with Onyx. The aim of this study was to present a large monocentric series of patients with DAVF treated with TVE. This series reports more than 20 years of experience and describes the evolution of the medical management of these patients, as well as current indications for this treatment at the authors’ center.
Consecutive patients treated for intracranial DAVFs with TVE from 1995 to 2018 were included. Clinical and imaging data were systematically collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors that were significantly associated with adverse clinical course or complications.
In this study of 136 patients with 142 DAVFs treated with TVE, the occlusion rate was 90%. The median length of follow-up was 11 months. The rate of permanent complications was 5.1%, and the procedure-related mortality rate was 1.5%. Procedure-related mortality was associated with extension of thrombosis that was observed early in our experience. The introduction of a postoperative anticoagulation regimen has drastically decreased the occurrence of this complication. Other minor complications included cochleovestibular syndrome after embolization of lateral sinus DAVF and oculomotor nerve damage after embolization of cavernous sinus DAVF.
TVE allows efficient occlusion of DAVF. It remains a valid option for DAVF located on a sinus that does not participate in normal venous drainage of the brain.