✓ The authors report a case of preoperative embolization and resection of a choroid plexus papilloma of the lateral ventricle in a 4-month-old boy. These vascular tumors of the central nervous system present a significant intraoperative bleeding risk. Attempts at preoperative embolization to reduce the bleeding risk have rarely succeeded because of the small and tortuous vessels feeding these tumors in infants. The case presented here supports the feasibility of preoperative embolization as a therapeutic adjunct in infants.
Marc L. Otten, Howard A. Riina, Y. Pierre Gobin and Mark M. Souweidane
Matthew C. Garrett, Ricardo J. Komotar, Maxwell B. Merkow, Robert M. Starke, Marc L. Otten and E. Sander Connolly
✓The 1985 International Extracranial–Intracranial (EC-IC) Bypass Trial failed to show a surgical benefit of EC-IC bypass in patients with varying degrees of angiographic stenosis. This study was limited by the technology available at the time it was conducted. In the 20 years since, there has been considerable progress in imaging techniques that now enable the identification of a subset of stroke patients with hemodynamic ischemia. In the present study, the authors review the relevant literature and propose a reevaluation of the benefits of the EC-IC bypass procedure using these new imaging techniques.
The authors reviewed the admission criteria for the EC-IC Bypass Trial in the light of more recently discovered neurovascular physiology and showed that the imaging criteria used in that trial are not physiologically adequate. A MED-LINE (1985–2007) database search for EC-IC case studies was conducted, and additional studies were identified manually by scrutinizing references from identified manuscripts, major neurosurgical journals and texts, and personal files.
Ricardo J. Komotar, Robert M. Starke, Marc L. Otten, Maxwell B. Merkow, Matthew C. Garrett, Randolph S. Marshall, Mitchell S. V. Elkind and E. Sander Connolly Jr.
The optimal treatment of medically refractory intracranial atheroocclusive disease remains unclear. The EC-IC Bypass Study Investigators found that patients with internal carotid and middle cerebral artery (ICA and MCA) occlusion received no benefit from direct superficial temporal artery to MCA bypass, and that patients with ICA occlusion and MCA stenosis may have actually fared worse after surgery, perhaps in part due to flow reversal in critical perforator-bearing segments. Although the results of recent investigations have suggested that direct bypass may be beneficial in a subgroup of patients with hemodynamic failure secondary to unilateral ICA occlusion, similar data do not exist for patients with hemodynamic failure from other intracranial stenoocclusive diseases. Indirect bypass via encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis offers a surgical alternative that may avoid rapid flow reversal while providing additional flow to at-risk, distal vascular territories.
Twelve patients with medically resistant hemodynamic failure from intracranial atheroocclusive disease underwent indirect vascular bypass. Eight patients had ICA occlusion and coexistent MCA stenosis, 1 patient had tandem ICA stenoses and MCA stenosis, 1 patient had tandem ICA and MCA occlusion, 1 patient had ICA and posterior cerebral artery occlusion and an ischemic hemisphere supplied via a proximal superficial temporal artery branch, and 1 patient had poor donor arteries and severe medical comorbidities that precluded the use of general anesthesia. Patient evaluation included clinical assessment of neurological status, CT scanning, MR imaging, digital subtraction angiography, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with CO2 reactivity, or SPECT with acetazolamide challenge. Patient records were reviewed and patients were interviewed for outcome assessment, including transient ischemic attack (TIA), cerebral infarction, change in cerebral perfusion, graft patency, and functional level according to the modified Rankin scale. Kaplan-Meier cumulative failure curves for the primary end point of cerebral infarction were used to compare these patients to a control group of 81 patients derived from the literature who received medical management for severe symptomatic hemodynamic failure.
Eleven patients underwent encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and 1 patient received bur holes with dural and arachnoid incisions; the mean length of follow-up was 51.2 ± 40.1 months. Five patients had decreased perfusion on follow-up despite graft patency, and 10 patients suffered new infarctions or TIAs during the follow-up period. Five patients (42%) suffered infarctions within 1 year of surgery. A meta-analysis of 4 studies of patients with symptomatic ICA occlusion and severe hemodynamic failure who underwent medical treatment revealed a new infarction rate of 30% in the first year after entry into the study. There was no significant difference between patients with severe hemodynamic failure who underwent surgery and those in the medically treated control group (log-rank test, p = 0.179).
The authors found that indirect bypass does not promote adequate pial collateral artery development and appears to be of limited utility in patients with symptomatic ICA or MCA stenoocclusive disease and secondary hemodynamic failure. Rates of postoperative TIAs or cerebral infarctions after indirect bypass in this patient population do not differ from previous reports in patients who received medical management only.
Ricardo J. Komotar, David K. Hahn, Grace H. Kim, Robert M. Starke, Matthew C. Garrett, Maxwell B. Merkow, Marc L. Otten, Robert R. Sciacca and E. Sander Connolly Jr.
Chronic hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement is a common complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Controversy exists over whether microsurgical fenestration of the lamina terminalis during aneurysm surgery affords a reduction in the development of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. To resolve this debate, the authors performed a systematic review and quantitative analysis of the literature to determine the efficacy of lamina terminalis fenestration in reducing aneurysmal SAH–associated shunt-dependent hydrocephalus.
A MEDLINE (1950–2007) database search was performed using the following keywords, singly and in combination: “ventriculoperitoneal shunt,” “hydrocephalus,” “subarachnoid hemorrhage,” “aneurysm,” “fenestration,” and “lamina terminalis.” Additional studies were manually singled out by scrutinizing references from identified manuscripts, major neurosurgical journals and texts, and personal files. A recent study from the authors' institution was also incorporated into the review. Data from included studies were analyzed using the chi-square analysis and Student t-test. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to compare overall incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus.
The literature search revealed 19 studies, but only 11 were included in this review, involving 1973 patients. The fenestrated and nonfenestrated cohorts (combined from the various studies) differed significantly with regard to patient sex, age, and clinical grade as well as aneurysm location (p = 0.0065, 0.0028, 0.0003, and 0.017, respectively). The overall incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the fenestrated cohort was 10%, as compared with 14% in the nonfenestrated cohort (p = 0.089). The relative risk of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the fenestrated cohort was 0.88 (95% CI 0.62–1.24).
This systematic review revealed no significant association between lamina terminalis fenestration and a reduced incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. The interpretation of these results, however, is restricted by unmatched cohort differences as well as other inherent study limitations. Although the overall literature supports lamina terminalis fenestration, a number of authors have questioned the technique's benefits, thus rendering its efficacy in reducing shunt-dependent hydrocephalus unclear. A well-designed, multicenter, randomized controlled trial is needed to definitively address the efficacy of this microsurgical technique.
Robert M. Starke, Ricardo J. Komotar, Zachary L. Hickman, Yehuda E. Paz, Angela G. Pugliese, Marc L. Otten, Matthew C. Garrett, Mitchell S. V. Elkind, Randolph S. Marshall, Joanne R. Festa, Philip M. Meyers and E. Sander Connolly Jr.
The object of this study was to report the clinical features, surgical treatment, and long-term outcomes in adults with moyamoya phenomenon treated at a single institution in the US.
Forty-three adult patients with moyamoya disease (mean age 40 ± 11 years [SD], range 18–69 years) were treated with encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS). Neurologists examined patients pre- and postoperatively. Follow-up was obtained in person or by structured telephone interview (median 41 months, range 4–126 months). The following outcomes were collected: transient ischemic attack (TIA), infarction, graft collateralization, change in cerebral perfusion, and functional level according to the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Kaplan-Meier estimates of infarction risk were calculated for comparison of surgically treated and contralateral hemispheres.
The majority of patients were women (65%), were Caucasian (65%), presented with ischemic symptoms (98%), and had bilateral disease (86%). Nineteen patients underwent unilateral and 24 patients bilateral EDAS (67 treated hemispheres). Collateral vessels developed in 50 (98%) of 52 hemispheres for which imaging was available and there was evidence of increased perfusion on SPECT scans in 41 (82%) of the 50 hemispheres evaluated. Periprocedural infarction (< 48 hours) occurred in 3% of the hemispheres treated. In the follow-up period patients experienced 10 TIAs, 6 infarctions, and 1 intracranial hemorrhage. Although the hemisphere selected for surgery was based upon patients' symptoms and severity of pathology, the 5-year infarction-free survival rate was 94% in the surgically treated hemispheres versus < 36% in the untreated hemispheres (p = 0.007). After controlling for age and sex, infarction was 89% less likely to occur in the surgically treated hemispheres than in the contralateral hemispheres (hazard ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02–0.56). Thirty-eight (88%) of 43 patients had preserved or improved mRS scores, relative to baseline status.
In this mixed-race population of North American patients, indirect bypass promoted adequate pial collateral development and increased perfusion in the majority of adult patients with moyamoya disease. Patients had low rates of postoperative TIAs, infarction, and hemorrhage, and the majority of patients had preserved or improved functional status.
Grace H. Kim, Christopher P. Kellner, David K. Hahn, Brianna M. Desantis, Muhith Musabbir, Robert M. Starke, Michal Rynkowski, Ricardo J. Komotar, Marc L. Otten, Robert Sciacca, J. Michael Schmidt, Stephan A. Mayer and E. Sander Connolly Jr.
Despite efforts to elucidate both the molecular mechanism and the clinical predictors of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ASAH), its pathogenesis remains unclear. Monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that has been firmly implicated in the pathophysiology of vasospasm and in neural tissue injury following focal ischemia in both animal models and human studies. The authors hypothesized that MCP-1 would be found in increased concentrations in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with ASAH and would correlate with both outcome and the occurrence of vasospasm.
Seventy-seven patients who presented with ASAH were prospectively enrolled in this study between July 2001 and May 2002. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, MCP-1 levels were measured in serum daily and in CSF when available. The mean serum and CSF MCP-1 concentrations were calculated for each patient throughout the entire hospital stay. Neurological outcome was evaluated at discharge or 14 days posthemorrhage using the modified Rankin Scale. Vasospasm was evaluated on angiography.
The serum MCP-1 concentrations correlated with negative outcome such that a 10% increase in concentration predicted a 25% increase in the probability of a poor outcome, whereas the serum MCP-1 levels did not correlate with vasospasm. Concentrations of MCP-1 in the CSF, however, proved to be significantly higher in patients with angiographically demonstrated vasospasm.
These findings suggest a role for MCP-1 in neurological injury and imply that it may act as a biomarker of poor outcome in the serum and of vasospasm in the CSF.