Edson Bor-Seng-Shu and Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence, duration, and time course of cerebral vasospasm after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a cohort of 299 patients.
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography studies of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral and basilar arteries (VMCA and VBA, respectively) were performed at regular intervals during the first 2 weeks posttrauma in association with 133Xe cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. According to current definitions of vasospasm, five different criteria were used to classify the patients: A (VMCA > 120 cm/second); B (VMCA > 120 cm/second and a Lindegaard ratio [LR] > 3); C (spasm index [SI] in the anterior circulation > 3.4); D (VBA > 90 cm/second); and E (SI in the posterior circulation > 2.5). Criteria C and E were considered to represent hemodynamically significant vasospasm. Mixed-effects spline models were used to analyze the data of multiple measurements with an inconsistent sampling rate.
Overall 45.2% of the patients demonstrated at least one criterion for vasospasm. The patients in whom vasospasm developed were significantly younger and had lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores on admission. The normalized cumulative incidences were 36.9 and 36.2% for patients with Criteria A and B, respectively. Hemodynamically significant vasospasm in the anterior circulation (Criterion C) was found in 44.6% of the patients, whereas vasospasm in the BA—Criterion D or E—was found in only 19 and 22.5% of the patients, respectively. The most common day of onset for Criteria A, B, D, and E was postinjury Day 2. The highest risk of developing hemodynamically significant vasospasm in the anterior circulation was found on Day 3. The daily prevalence of vasospasm in patients in the intensive care unit was 30% from postinjury Day 2 to Day 13. Vasospasm resolved after a duration of 5 days in 50% of the patients with Criterion A or B and after a period of 3.5 days in 50% of those patients with Criterion D or E. Hemodynamically significant vasospasm in the anterior circulation resolved after 2.5 days in 50% of the patients. The time course of that vasospasm was primarily determined by a decrease in CBF.
The incidence of vasospasm after TBI is similar to that following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Because vasospasm is a significant event in a high proportion of patients after severe head injury, close TCD and CBF monitoring is recommended for the treatment of such patients.
Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Roberto Hirsch, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Almir Ferreira de Andrade and Raul Marino Jr.
The use of decompressive craniectomy has experienced a revival in the previous decade, although its actual benefit on patients’ neurological outcome remains the subject of debate. A better understanding of the intracranial pressure dynamics, as well as of the metabolic and hemodynamic brain processes, may be useful in assessing the effect of this surgery on the pathophysiology of the swollen brain. The aim of this study was to use transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography to examine the hemodynamic changes in the brain after decompressive craniectomy in patients with head injury, in addition to examining the relationship between such hemodynamic changes and the patient’s neurological outcome.
Nineteen patients presenting with traumatic brain swelling and cerebral herniation syndrome who had undergone decompressive craniectomy with dural expansion were studied prospectively. The TCD ultrasonography measurements were performed bilaterally in both the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and in the distal portion of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) immediately prior to and after surgical decompression.
After surgery, the mean blood flow velocity (BFV) rose to 175 ± 209% of preoperative values in the MCA of the operated side, while rising to 132 ± 183% in the contralateral side; the difference between the mean BFV increase in in the MCA of both the decompressed and the opposite side reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). The mean BFV of the extracranial ICA increased to 91 ± 119% in the surgical side and 45 ± 60% in the opposite side. Conversely, the MCA pulsatility index (PI) values decreased, on average, to 33 ± 36% of the preoperative value in the operated side and to 30 ± 34% on the opposite side; the MCA PI value reductions were significantly greater in the decompressed side when compared with the contralateral side (p < 0.05). The PI of the extracranial ICA reduced, on average, to 37 ± 23% of the initial values in the operated side and to 24 ± 34%, contralaterally. No correlation was verified between the neurological outcome and cerebral hemodynamic changes seen on TCD ultrasonography.
Decompressive craniectomy results in a significant elevation of cerebral BFV in most patients with traumatic brain swelling and transtentorial herniation syndrome. The increase in cerebral BFV may also occur in the side opposite the decompressed hemisphere; the cerebral BFV increase is significantly greater in the operated hemisphere than contralaterally. Concomitantly, PI values decrease significantly postoperatively, mainly in the decompressed cerebral hemisphere, indicating reduction in cerebrovascular resistance.
Erich Talamoni Fonoff, William Omar Contreras Lopez, Ywzhe Sifuentes Almeida de Oliveira and Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
The aim of this study was to show that microendoscopic guidance using a double-channel technique could be safely applied during percutaneous cordotomy and provides clear real-time visualization of the spinal cord and surrounding structures during the entire procedure.
Twenty-four adult patients with intractable cancer pain were treated by microendoscopic-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) cordotomy using the double-channel technique under local anesthesia. A percutaneous lateral puncture was performed initially under fluoroscopy guidance to localize the target. When the subarachnoid space was reached by the guiding cannula, the endoscope was inserted for visualization of the spinal cord and surrounding structures. After target visualization, a second needle was inserted to guide the RF electrode. Cordotomy was performed by a standard RF method.
The microendoscopic double-channel approach provided real-time visualization of the target in 91% of the cases. The other 9% of procedures were performed by the single-channel technique. Significant analgesia was achieved in over 90% of the cases. Two patients had transient ataxia that lasted for a few weeks until total recovery.
The use of percutaneous microendoscopic cordotomy with the double-channel technique is useful for specific manipulations of the spinal cord. It provides real-time visualization of the RF probe, thereby adding a degree of safety to the procedure.
Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Fabrício Freitas de Almeida, Ywzhe Sifuentes Almeida de Oliveira and Erich Talamoni Fonoff
Over the past few decades, various authors have performed open or stereotactic trigeminal nucleotractotomy for the treatment of neuropathic facial pain resistant to medical treatment. Stereotactic procedures can be performed percutaneously under local anesthesia, allowing intraoperative neurological examination as a method for target refinement. However, blind percutaneous procedures in the region of the atlantooccipital transition carry a considerably high risk of vascular injuries that may bring prohibitive neurological deficit or even death. To avoid such complications, the authors present the first clinical use of microendoscopy to assist percutaneous radiofrequency trigeminal nucleotractotomy. The aim of this article is to demonstrate intradural microendoscopic visualization of the medulla oblongata through an atlantooccipital percutaneous approach.
The authors present a case of severe postherpetic facial neuralgia in a patient who underwent the procedure and had satisfactory results. Stereotactic computational image planning for targeting the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus in the posterolateral medulla was performed, allowing for an accurate percutaneous approach. Immediately before radiofrequency electrode insertion, a fine endoscope was introduced to visualize the structures in the cisterna magna.
Microendoscopic visualization offered clear identification of the pial surface of the medulla oblongata and its blood vessels, the arachnoid membrane, cranial nerve rootlets and their entry zone, and larger vessels such as the vertebral arteries and the branches of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery.
The initial application of this technique suggests that percutaneous microendoscopy may be useful for particular manipulation of the medulla oblongata, increasing the safety of the procedure and likely improving its effectiveness.
Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Robson Luis Oliveira de Amorim, Wellingson S. Paiva, Guilherme Lepski and Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
Jose Weber Vieira de Faria, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Leonardo de Moura Sousa Júnior, Jose Pinhata Otoch and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo
The authors sought to construct, implement, and evaluate an interactive and stereoscopic resource for teaching neuroanatomy, accessible from personal computers.
Forty fresh brains (80 hemispheres) were dissected. Images of areas of interest were captured using a manual turntable and processed and stored in a 5337-image database. Pedagogic evaluation was performed in 84 graduate medical students, divided into 3 groups: 1 (conventional method), 2 (interactive nonstereoscopic), and 3 (interactive and stereoscopic). The method was evaluated through a written theory test and a lab practicum.
Groups 2 and 3 showed the highest mean scores in pedagogic evaluations and differed significantly from Group 1 (p < 0.05). Group 2 did not differ statistically from Group 3 (p > 0.05). Size effects, measured as differences in scores before and after lectures, indicate the effectiveness of the method. ANOVA results showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups, and the Tukey test showed statistical differences between Group 1 and the other 2 groups (p < 0.05). No statistical differences between Groups 2 and 3 were found in the practicum. However, there were significant differences when Groups 2 and 3 were compared with Group 1 (p < 0.05).
The authors conclude that this method promoted further improvement in knowledge for students and fostered significantly higher learning when compared with traditional teaching resources.
Rodolfo Casimiro Reis, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Marilia Wellichan Mancini, Luciana Almeida-Lopes, Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira and Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto
Ventricular neuroendoscopy represents an important advance in the treatment of hydrocephalus. High-power (surgical) Nd:YAG laser and low-level laser therapy (using 685-nm-wavelength diode laser) have been used in conjunction with neuroendoscopy with favorable results. This study evaluated the use of surgical 980-nm-wavelength diode laser for the neuroendoscopic treatment of ventricular diseases.
Nine patients underwent a neuroendoscopic procedure with 980-nm diode laser. Complications and follow-up were recorded.
Three in-hospital postoperative complications were recorded (1 intraventricular hemorrhage and 2 meningitis cases). The remaining 6 patients had symptom improvement after endoscopic surgery and were discharged from the hospital within 24–48 hours after surgery. Patients were followed for an average of 14 months: 1 patient developed meningitis and another died suddenly at home. The other patients did well and were asymptomatic until the last follow-up consultation.
The 980-nm diode laser is considered an important therapeutic tool for endoscopic neurological surgeries. This study showed its application in different ventricular diseases.
Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Bruno Braga Sisnando da Costa, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo
Raghu Samala, Kanwaljeet Garg, Shweta Kedia and Guru Dutta Satyarthee