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Barbara A. Morais, Daniel D. Cardeal, Fernanda G. Andrade, Wellingson S. Paiva, Hamilton Matushita and Manoel J. Teixeira

Constipation can cause transient malfunction of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). Patients with myelomeningocele or cerebral palsy are often diagnosed with hydrocephalus and constipation due to neurogenic bowel. These patients are more prone to VPS dysfunction, often requiring surgical revision. The authors report the case of a 6-year-old girl with a VPS that had been implanted due to hydrocephalus secondary to myelomeningocele. The patient was brought to the emergency department with intermittent headache, vomiting, constipation, and abdominal distension and pain. A CT scan revealed ventricular dilatation and radiography of the abdomen showed bowel loop distension. After a Fleet enema and digital maneuvers, her abdominal distension and symptoms improved. A CT scan obtained 24 hours later showed a reduction in ventricular size. The mechanism by which constipation can lead to VPS malfunction can be traced to indirect increases of intraabdominal pressure and direct obstruction of the catheter by distended intestinal loops. Treating constipation can restore the free circulation of the CSF and avoid surgical intervention. Careful neurological monitoring of these patients is essential, because some measures used to treat constipation can increase intracranial pressure. The objective of this report was to highlight constipation as a possible cause of transient VPS malfunction, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgical revisions, to which children with hydrocephalus are frequently submitted.

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Eberval G. Figueiredo, Manoel J. Teixeira and Leonardo C. Welling

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Davi J. Fontoura Solla, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira and Wellingson Silva Paiva

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Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Manoel J. Teixeira, Robert F. Spetzler and Mark C. Preul

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João Luiz Vitorino Araujo, José C. E. Veiga, Hung Tzu Wen, Almir F. de Andrade, Manoel J. Teixeira, José P. Otoch, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., Mark C. Preul, Robert F. Spetzler and Eberval G. Figueiredo

OBJECTIVE

Access to the third ventricle is a veritable challenge to neurosurgeons. In this context, anatomical and morphometric studies are useful for establishing the limitations and advantages of a particular surgical approach. The transchoroidal approach is versatile and provides adequate exposure of the middle and posterior regions of the third ventricle. However, the fornix column limits the exposure of the anterior region of the third ventricle. There is evidence that the unilateral section of the fornix column has little effect on cognitive function. This study compared the anatomical exposure afforded by the transforniceal-transchoroidal approach with that of the transchoroidal approach. In addition, a morphometric evaluation of structures that are relevant to and common in the 2 approaches was performed.

METHODS

The anatomical exposure provided by the transcallosal-transchoroidal and transcallosal-transforniceal-transchoroidal approaches was compared in 8 fresh cadavers, using a neuronavigation system. The working area, microsurgical exposure area, and angular exposure on the longitudinal and transversal planes of 2 anatomical targets (tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct) were compared. Additionally, the thickness of the right frontal lobe parenchyma, thickness of the corpus callosum trunk, and longitudinal diameter of the interventricular foramen were measured. The values obtained were submitted to statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon test.

RESULTS

In the quantitative evaluation, compared with the transchoroidal approach, the transforniceal-transchoroidal approach provided a greater mean working area (transforniceal-transchoroidal 150 ± 11 mm2; transchoroidal 121 ± 8 mm2; p < 0.05), larger mean microsurgical exposure area (transforniceal-transchoroidal 101 ± 9 mm2; transchoroidal 80 ± 5 mm2; p < 0.05), larger mean angular exposure area on the longitudinal plane for the tuber cinereum (transforniceal-transchoroidal 71° ± 7°; transchoroidal 64° ± 6°; p < 0.05), and larger mean angular exposure area on the longitudinal plane for the cerebral aqueduct (transforniceal-transchoroidal 62° ± 6°; transchoroidal 55° ± 5°; p < 0.05). No differences were observed in angular exposure along the transverse axis for either anatomical target (tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct; p > 0.05). The mean thickness of the right frontal lobe parenchyma was 35 ± 3 mm, the mean thickness of the corpus callosum trunk was 10 ± 1 mm, and the mean longitudinal diameter of the interventricular foramen was 4.6 ± 0.4 mm. In the qualitative assessment, it was noted that the transforniceal-transchoroidal approach led to greater exposure of the third ventricle anterior region structures. There was no difference between approaches in the exposure of the structures of the middle and posterior region.

CONCLUSIONS

The transforniceal-transchoroidal approach provides greater surgical exposure of the third ventricle anterior region than that offered by the transchoroidal approach. In the population studied, morphometric analysis established mean values for anatomical structures common to both approaches.

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Vinícius M. P. Guirado, Mario A. Taricco, Moacyr R. C. Nobre, Euro B. Couto Júnior, Eduardo S. C. Ribas, Alexandre Meluzzi, Roger S. Brock, Mario R. Pena Dias, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Manoel J. Teixeira

Object

The most appropriate method to determine the quality of life of patients with intradural primary spinal tumors (IPSTs) is not still well established.

Methods

Clinical data in 234 patients who underwent surgery for intradural spinal disease were collected prospectively. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), a generic score scale, was administered to 148 patients with IPSTs to demonstrate if the survey can be used to effectively evaluate these patients. Forty-eight patients were excluded because they did not complete the protocol. The study was finally conducted with 100 patients (45 male and 55 female) with IPSTs, and the results were compared with those of 2 other scales: the McCormick scale and the Aminoff-Logue scale.

Results

Construct validity was demonstrated by confirming the hypothesized relationship between the scores of the SF-36 and the McCormick scale (p = 0.003), the Aminoff-Logue gait subscale (p = 0.025), the Aminoff-Logue micturition subscale (p = 0.013), and the Aminoff-Logue defecation subscale (p = 0.004). Reliability was demonstrated for all 8 SF-36 domain scales and the Physical Component Summary and the Mental Component Summary of the SF-36, where in each the Cronbach alpha satisfied the Nunnally criterion of > 0.85.

Conclusions

The authors' results demonstrated that SF-36 provides valid and reliable data for patients with IPSTs and that the survey can be used appropriately to evaluate these patients.

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Carlos Michel A. Peres, Jose Guilherme M. P. Caldas, Paulo Puglia Jr., Almir F. de Andrade, Igor A. F. da Silva, Manoel J. Teixeira and Eberval G. Figueiredo

OBJECTIVE

Small acute epidural hematomas (EDHs) treated conservatively carry a nonmeasurable risk of late enlargement due to middle meningeal artery (MMA) lesions. Patients with EDHs need to stay hospitalized for several days, with neurological supervision and repeated CT scans. In this study, the authors analyzed the safety and efficacy of the embolization of the involved MMA and associated lesions.

METHODS

The study group consisted of 80 consecutive patients harboring small- to medium-sized EDHs treated by MMA embolization between January 2010 and December 2014. A literature review cohort was used as a control group.

RESULTS

The causes of head injury were falls, traffic-related accidents (including car, motorcycle, and pedestrian vs vehicle accidents), and assaults. The EDH topography was mainly temporal (lateral or pole). Active contrast leaking from the MMA was seen in 57.5%; arteriovenous fistulas between the MMA and diploic veins were seen in 10%; and MMA pseudoaneurysms were found in 13.6% of the cases. Embolizations were performed under local anesthesia in 80% of the cases, with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, polyvinyl alcohol particles, or gelatin sponge (or a combination of these), obtaining MMA occlusion and complete resolution of the vascular lesions. All patients underwent follow-up CT scans between 1 and 7 days after the embolization. In the 80 cases in this series, no increase in size of the EDH was observed and the clinical evolution was uneventful, without Glasgow Coma Scale score modification after embolization and with no need for surgical evacuation. In contrast, the control cohort from the literature consisted of 471 patients, 82 (17.4%) of whom shifted from conservative treatment to surgical evacuation.

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests that MMA embolization is a highly effective and safe method to achieve size stabilization in nonsurgically treated acute EDHs.

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João Luiz Vitorino Araujo, José C. E. Veiga, Hung Tzu Wen, Almir F. de Andrade, Manoel J. Teixeira, José P. Otoch, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., Mark C. Preul, Robert F. Spetzler and Eberval G. Figueiredo

OBJECTIVE

Access to the third ventricle is a veritable challenge to neurosurgeons. In this context, anatomical and morphometric studies are useful for establishing the limitations and advantages of a particular surgical approach. The transchoroidal approach is versatile and provides adequate exposure of the middle and posterior regions of the third ventricle. However, the fornix column limits the exposure of the anterior region of the third ventricle. There is evidence that the unilateral section of the fornix column has little effect on cognitive function. This study compared the anatomical exposure afforded by the transforniceal-transchoroidal approach with that of the transchoroidal approach. In addition, a morphometric evaluation of structures that are relevant to and common in the 2 approaches was performed.

METHODS

The anatomical exposure provided by the transcallosal-transchoroidal and transcallosal-transforniceal-transchoroidal approaches was compared in 8 fresh cadavers, using a neuronavigation system. The working area, microsurgical exposure area, and angular exposure on the longitudinal and transversal planes of 2 anatomical targets (tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct) were compared. Additionally, the thickness of the right frontal lobe parenchyma, thickness of the corpus callosum trunk, and longitudinal diameter of the interventricular foramen were measured. The values obtained were submitted to statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon test.

RESULTS

In the quantitative evaluation, compared with the transchoroidal approach, the transforniceal-transchoroidal approach provided a greater mean working area (transforniceal-transchoroidal 150 ± 11 mm2; transchoroidal 121 ± 8 mm2; p < 0.05), larger mean microsurgical exposure area (transforniceal-transchoroidal 101 ± 9 mm2; transchoroidal 80 ± 5 mm2; p < 0.05), larger mean angular exposure area on the longitudinal plane for the tuber cinereum (transforniceal-transchoroidal 71° ± 7°; transchoroidal 64° ± 6°; p < 0.05), and larger mean angular exposure area on the longitudinal plane for the cerebral aqueduct (transforniceal-transchoroidal 62° ± 6°; transchoroidal 55° ± 5°; p < 0.05). No differences were observed in angular exposure along the transverse axis for either anatomical target (tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct; p > 0.05). The mean thickness of the right frontal lobe parenchyma was 35 ± 3 mm, the mean thickness of the corpus callosum trunk was 10 ± 1 mm, and the mean longitudinal diameter of the interventricular foramen was 4.6 ± 0.4 mm. In the qualitative assessment, it was noted that the transforniceal-transchoroidal approach led to greater exposure of the third ventricle anterior region structures. There was no difference between approaches in the exposure of the structures of the middle and posterior region.

CONCLUSIONS

The transforniceal-transchoroidal approach provides greater surgical exposure of the third ventricle anterior region than that offered by the transchoroidal approach. In the population studied, morphometric analysis established mean values for anatomical structures common to both approaches.