The American Revolution was a gruesome warthat resulted in the independence of the United States of America from the British crown and countless casualties to both belligerents. However, from these desperate times, the treatment of traumatic head injury was elucidated, as were the origins of American neurosurgery in the 18th century. During the war, the surgical manual used by military field surgeons was titled Plain Concise Practical Remarks on the Treatment of Wounds and Fractures, by Dr. John Jones. This manual explains the different types of cranial injuries understood at that time as well as the relevant surgical treatment. This article seeks to review the surgical treatment of head injury in the Revolutionary War as outlined by Dr. Jones’s manual.