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Tsung-Ying Yu, Chao-Hung Chen, Man-Wei Hua, Chiao-Chin Lee and Dueng-Yuan Hueng

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Shin-Joe Yeh, Sung-Chun Tang, Li-Kai Tsai, Chung-Wei Lee, Ya-Fang Chen, Hon-Man Liu, Shih-Hung Yang, Yu-Lin Hsieh, Meng-Fai Kuo and Jiann-Shing Jeng


Pediatric and adult patients with moyamoya disease experience similar clinical benefits from indirect revascularization surgeries, but there are still debates about age-related angiographic differences of the collaterals established after surgery. The goal of this study was to assess age-related differences on ultrasonography before and after indirect revascularization surgeries in moyamoya patients, focusing on some ultrasonographic parameters known to be correlated with the collaterals supplied by the external carotid artery (ECA).


The authors prospectively included moyamoya patients (50 and 26 hemispheres in pediatric and adult patients, respectively) who would undergo indirect revascularization surgery. Before surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, the patients underwent ultrasonographic examinations. The ultrasonographic parameters included peak-systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistance index (RI), and flow volume (FV) measured in the ECA, superficial temporal artery (STA), and internal carotid artery on the operated side. The mean values, absolute changes, and percentage changes of these parameters were compared between the pediatric and adult patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to clarify the determinants affecting postoperative EDV changes in the STA.


Before surgery, the adult patients had mean higher EDV and lower RI in the STA and ECA than the pediatric group (all p < 0.05). After surgery, the pediatric patients had greater changes (absolute and percentage changes) in the PSV, EDV, RI, and FV in the STA and ECA (all p < 0.05). The factors affecting postoperative EDV changes in the STA at 6 months were age (p = 0.006) and size of the revascularization area (i.e., revascularization in more than the temporal region vs within the temporal region; p = 0.009). Pediatric patients who received revascularization procedures in more than the temporal region had higher velocities (PSV and EDV) in the STA than those who received revascularization within the temporal region (p < 0.05 at 1–6 months), but such differences were not observed in the adult group.


The greater changes of these parameters in the STA and ECA in pediatric patients than in adults after indirect revascularization surgeries indicated that pediatric patients might have a greater increase of collaterals postoperatively than adults. Pediatric patients who undergo revascularization in more than the temporal region might have more collaterals than those who undergo revascularization within the temporal region.

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Sui-To Wong, Ka-Tai Loo, Kwong-Yui Yam, Wai-Man Hung, Kam-Fuk Fok, Shing-Chau Yuen and Dawson Fong


In theory, the purpose of the treatment of cerebral radionecrosis (CRN), a nonneoplastic condition, is to minimize loss of brain function by preventing the progression and reversing some of the processes of CRN. In a practical sense, factors for achieving this purpose may include the following: removal of a CRN lesion that is causing mass effect, control of brain edema, prevention of recurrence of CRN lesions, minimization of adverse effects from treatments, and achievement of reasonably long and good-quality survivals. Based on these practical issues, the authors performed a retrospective study to evaluate the results of excision for the treatment of CRN.


The authors retrospectively reviewed the results of excision of CRN lesions in a group of patients with temporal lobe CRN due to radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients who had undergone surgery at the authors' institution between January 1998 and November 2008 were analyzed. Surgical results were evaluated by assessing postoperative resolution of brain edema, recurrence of temporal lobe CRN, surgery-related complications, and postoperative functional status and survival.


Twenty-four patients were included (age range 39–69 years; in 23 patients nasopharyngeal carcinoma was in remission). All patients underwent craniotomy for excision of the contrast-enhancing region. The indications for operation were temporal lobe CRN lesions with a mass-occupying effect beyond the temporal lobe. There were 32 craniotomies in all (mean postoperative follow-up 40 months). It was found that brain edema resolved rapidly postoperatively. The recurrence and reoperation rates were 6.3 and 3.1%, respectively. There were no surgery-related deaths. The median survival was 72 months, and 67% of the patients had a Karnofsky Performance Scale score of ≥ 70% at the time of their last follow-up.


In a specific group of patients with CRN of the temporal lobe in whom the CRN lesions were causing a mass-occupying effect beyond the temporal lobe, excision of the contrast-enhancing region was safe and could achieve prompt resolution of brain edema and a low incidence of recurrence of CRN.