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State of the art in managing nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage

Julie Dubourg and Mahmoud Messerer

Nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. Intracerebral hemorrhage leads to a high rate of morbidity and mortality. To date, no medical or surgical trials have clearly attested to the benefit of a particular therapy. The aim of this review was to summarize the best evidence for management decision-making in intracerebral hemorrhage.

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Sports-related chronic repetitive head trauma as a cause of pituitary dysfunction

Julie Dubourg and Mahmoud Messerer

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized as a cause of hypopituitarism even after mild TBI. Although over the past decade, a growing body of research has detailed neuroendocrine changes induced by TBI, the mechanisms and risk factors responsible for this pituitary dysfunction are still unclear. Around the world, sports—especially combative sports—are very popular. However, sports are not generally considered as a cause of TBI in most epidemiological studies, and the link between sports-related head trauma and hypopituitarism has not been investigated until recently. Thus, there is a paucity of data regarding this important concern. Because of the large number of young sports participants with near-normal life expectancy, the implications of undiagnosed or untreated postconcussion pituitary dysfunction can be dramatic. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of hypopituitarism caused by sports injuries is thus an important issue that concerns both medical staff and sponsors of sports. The aim of this paper was to summarize the best evidence for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and to discuss the current data and recommendations on sports-related head trauma as a cause of hypopituitarism.

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Letter to the Editor. Endoscopic pituitary surgery

Mahmoud Messerer and Julie Dubourg

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Letter to the Editor: Optic nerve sheath diameter and intracranial pressure

Julie Dubourg, Etienne Javouhey, and Mahmoud Messerer

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Letter to the Editor: Cerebellopontine angle cyst

Mahmoud Messerer, Julie Dubourg, and Abderrhamane Hamlat

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Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy in neurosurgical practice

Julie Dubourg, Moncef Berhouma, Michael Cotton, and Mahmoud Messerer

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) allows evidence to be evaluated on the effectiveness, benefits, and detriments of management options, diagnostic tests, or ways to deliver health care. This process can be achieved in different ways, such as with well-designed randomized controlled trials or by meta-analyses. Several medical subspecialties are increasingly using CER, but CER remains underused by the neurosurgical community. Meta-analysis is a highly accurate method that permits results from multiple well-designed research studies to be quantitatively compared. Meta-analysis can be performed in many settings, such as the evaluation of treatment or of a diagnostic test or prognostic factor. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled treatment trials are well known, but there is a paucity of papers describing the ways to perform a meta-analysis of a diagnostic test. The aim of this paper is to improve neurosurgeons' familiarity with the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy by describing and detailing each stage leading to publication.

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Letter to the Editor. A new technique for stroke-induced refractory epilepsy

Giulia Cossu, Mahmoud Messerer, and Roy Thomas Daniel

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Periinsular anterior quadrantotomy: technical note

Giulia Cossu, Sebastien Lebon, Margitta Seeck, Etienne Pralong, Mahmoud Messerer, Eliane Roulet-Perez, and Roy Thomas Daniel

Refractory frontal lobe epilepsy has been traditionally treated through a frontal lobectomy. A disconnective technique may allow similar seizure outcomes while avoiding the complications associated with large brain resections. The aim of this study was to describe a new technique of selective disconnection of the frontal lobe that can be performed in cases of refractory epilepsy due to epileptogenic foci involving 1 frontal lobe (anterior to the motor cortex), with preservation of motor function. In addition to the description of the technique, an illustrative case is also presented.

This disconnective procedure is divided into 4 steps: the suprainsular window, the anterior callosotomy, the intrafrontal disconnection, and the frontobasal disconnection. The functional neuroanatomy is analyzed in detail for each step of the surgery. It is important to perform cortical and subcortical electrophysiological mapping to guide this disconnective procedure and identify eloquent cortices and intact neural pathways.

The authors describe the case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with refractory epilepsy due to epileptogenic foci localized to the right frontal lobe. MRI confirmed the presence of a focal cortical dysplasia of the right frontal lobe. A periinsular anterior quadrant disconnection (quadrantotomy) was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was in Engel seizure outcome Class I at the 3-year follow-up. A significant cognitive gain was observed during follow-up.

Periinsular anterior quadrantotomy may thus represent a safe technique to efficiently treat refractory epilepsy when epileptogenic foci are localized to 1 frontal lobe while preserving residual motor functions.

Open access

Hemorrhagic direct traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery: intraoperative management and endovascular treatment

Giulia Cossu, Tyler Atkins, Steven D. Hajdu, Francesco Puccinelli, Roy T. Daniel, and Mahmoud Messerer

Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is a rare complication after transsphenoidal surgery with only 10 cases published (Ahuja et al., 1992; Cinar et al., 2013; Cossu et al., 2020; Dolenc et al., 1999; Kalia et al., 2009; Karaman et al., 2009; Kocer et al., 2002; Koitschev et al., 2006; Pigott et al., 1989; Takahashi et al., 1969). Intraoperative findings vary from unrecognized events to life-threatening hemorrhages.

We provide a description of the management of an acute CCF occurring during sphenoidotomy in a patient with pituitary apoplexy. Osteotomy performed in the rostrum resulted in a fracture, which extended toward the intracavernous carotid artery.

Bleeding was managed with mechanical compression. Endovascular treatment allowed closure of the fistula through transarterial coiling and glue. Arterial patency was preserved and the patient had no new neurological deficit.

Drilling should be considered over osteotomy for the anterior sphenoidotomy.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/0Me23xIVeNI.

Free access

Unilateral prefrontal lobotomy for epilepsy: technique and surgical anatomy

Giulia Cossu, Pablo González-López, Etienne Pralong, Judith Kalser, Mahmoud Messerer, and Roy Thomas Daniel

OBJECTIVE

Surgery for frontal lobe epilepsy remains a challenge because of the variable seizure outcomes after surgery. Disconnective procedures are increasingly applied to isolate the epileptogenic focus and avoid complications related to extensive brain resection. Previously, the authors described the anterior quadrant disconnection procedure to treat large frontal lobe lesions extending up to but not involving the primary motor cortex. In this article, they describe a surgical technique for unilateral disconnection of the prefrontal cortex, while providing an accurate description of the surgical and functional anatomy of this disconnective procedure.

METHODS

The authors report the surgical treatment of a 5-month-old boy who presented with refractory epilepsy due to extensive cortical dysplasia of the left prefrontal lobe. In addition, with the aim of both describing the subcortical intrinsic anatomy and illustrating the different connections between the prefrontal lobe and the rest of the brain, the authors dissected six human cadaveric brain hemispheres. These dissections were performed from lateral to medial and from medial to lateral to reveal the various tracts sectioned during the three different steps in the surgery, namely the intrafrontal disconnection, anterior callosotomy, and frontobasal disconnection.

RESULTS

The first step of the dissection involves cutting the U-fibers. During the anterior intrafrontal disconnection, the superior longitudinal fasciculus in the depth of the middle frontal gyrus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior frontooccipital fasciculus in the depth of the inferior frontal gyrus at the level of the anterior insular point are visualized and sectioned, followed by sectioning of the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Once the frontal horn is reached, the anterior callosotomy can be performed to disconnect the genu and the rostrum of the corpus callosum. The intrafrontal disconnection is deepened toward the falx, and at the medial surface, the cingulum is sectioned. The frontobasal disconnection involves cutting the anterior limb of the anterior commissure.

CONCLUSIONS

This technique allows selective isolation of the epileptogenic focus located in the prefrontal lobe to avoid secondary propagation. Understanding the surface and white matter fiber anatomy is essential to safely perform the procedure and obtain a favorable seizure outcome.