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Changhan Jun, Madhav Sukumaran and Jean-Paul Wolinsky

Resection of a giant pre-sacral schwannoma originating from the right S2 nerve in a 22-year-old woman illustrates the potential for robotic surgery. The da Vinci Robot Surgical System facilitates visualization deep in the pelvis and allows for bimanual wristed instrument control to dissect the tumor from surrounding sensitive structures. Neurostimulation to identify critical nerves is possible and complete resection of the tumor can be achieved. There were no complications, she remained neurologically intact, the estimated blood loss was less than 75 ml, the total hospital stay was 3 days, and she returned to work within 2 weeks of her operation. In select patients, robot-assisted surgery may have advantages.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/SYjUA-WcyGI.

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Redi Rahmani, Madhav Sukumaran, Angela M. Donaldson, Olga Akselrod, Ehud Lavi and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECT

Xanthogranulomas are rare inflammatory masses most often found in the skin and eye. The incidence of intracranial xanthogranulomas is 1.6%–7%, with those found in the sellar and parasellar region being exceedingly rare and their etiology controversial. Sellar and parasellar xanthogranulomas are rarely reported in the western hemisphere, and their incidence in Western countries is unknown.

METHODS

A prospectively acquired database of all endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries performed at Weill Cornell Medical College was queried. Patients with histologically confirmed xanthogranulomas who were diagnosed and treated between 2003 and 2013 were included in the study. Patient history, demographic data, histological findings, and surgical approach were also evaluated.

RESULTS

A total of 643 endonasal endoscopic procedures had been performed at the time of this study. Four patients (0.6%) were identified as having a histologically confirmed xanthogranuloma of the parasellar region, compared with an incidence of 6.7% for craniopharyngioma (CP) and 2% for Rathke cleft cyst (RCC). The most common symptom was visual loss, followed by headache. Preoperative diagnosis was CP in all cases. All patients underwent extended endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery with gross-total resection. Two patients developed panhypopituitarism after surgery. There were no CSF leaks. The mean follow-up was 61 months, at which time there were no recurrences. The key histological features differentiating xanthogranulomas from CPs were accumulation of foamy macrophages, multinucleated foreign body giant cells, cholesterol clefts, and hemosiderin deposits without stratified squamous epithelium. These histological features appear commonly as part of the spectrum of a secondary inflammatory response in an RCC.

CONCLUSIONS

Parasellar xanthogranulomas most closely approximate CPs clinically but pathological evidence may suggest an RCC origin. Gross-total resection can be achieved through extended endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches, and is curative.

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Aravind G. Kalluri, Madhav Sukumaran, Pouya Nazari, Pedram Golnari, Sameer A. Ansari, Michael C. Hurley, Ali Shaibani, Babak S. Jahromi and Matthew B. Potts

OBJECTIVE

The carotid cave is a unique intradural region located along the medial aspect of the internal carotid artery. Small carotid cave aneurysms confined within this space are bound by the carotid sulcus of the sphenoid bone and are thought to have a low risk of rupture or growth. However, there is a lack of data on the natural history of this subset of aneurysms.

METHODS

The authors present a retrospective case series of 290 small (≤ 4 mm) carotid cave aneurysms evaluated and managed at their institution between January 2000 and June 2017.

RESULTS

No patient presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage attributable to a carotid cave aneurysm, and there were no instances of aneurysm rupture or growth during 911.0 aneurysm-years of clinical follow-up or 726.3 aneurysm-years of imaging follow-up, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

This series demonstrates the benign nature of small carotid cave aneurysms.