Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery (FDCA) is a known postoperative imaging finding after craniopharyngioma resection. FDCA has also been reported following surgery for other lesions in the suprasellar region in pediatric patients and is thought to be due to trauma to the internal carotid artery (ICA) wall during tumor dissection. Here, the authors report 2 cases of pediatric patients with FDCA. Case 1 is a patient in whom FDCA was visualized on follow-up scans after total resection of a craniopharyngioma; this patient’s subsequent scans and neurological status remained stable throughout a 20-year follow-up period. In case 2, FDCA appeared after resection and fenestration of a giant arachnoid cyst in a 3-year-old child, with 6 years of stable subsequent follow-up, an imaging finding that to the authors’ knowledge has not previously been reported following surgery for arachnoid cyst fenestration. These cases demonstrate that surgery involving dissection adjacent to the carotid artery wall in pediatric patients may lead to the development of FDCA. On very long-term follow-up, this imaging finding rarely changes and virtually all patients remain asymptomatic. Neurointerventional treatment of FDCA in the absence of symptoms or significant late enlargement of the arterial ectasia does not appear to be indicated.
Madeline B. Karsten and R. Michael Scott
Madeline B. Karsten, Edward R. Smith, and R. Michael Scott
There are limited reports on long-term morbidity in pediatric patients who have undergone surgical revascularization for moyamoya disease (MMD). Here, the authors report long-term morbidity and mortality in a population of pediatric patients who underwent pial synangiosis for MMD from 1988 through 2016.
A single-center retrospective review of the hospital and personal operative databases of the senior authors was carried out to identify all patients who were treated for MMD at Boston Children’s Hospital between 1988 and 2016, and who experienced any episode of late morbidity or mortality, which the authors defined as an event resulting in significant neurological deficit or death occurring more than 1 year after revascularization surgery. Hospital records were reviewed to determine pertinent demographic data, the initial mode of patient presentation, and associated comorbidities. Radiographic studies, when available, were reviewed for documentation of the diagnosis and for confirmation of the late complication, and the literature on this topic was reviewed.
In total, 460 patients with MMD underwent surgery between 1988 and 2016 using the pial synangiosis surgical technique; 15 (3.3%) of these patients (9 females and 6 males) experienced documented late death (n = 14) or severe morbidity (n = 1). The median age at revascularization surgery was 8.0 years (range 1–21 years). The causes of these late complications were grouped into three etiologies: intraventricular or intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 8), systemic complications related to associated comorbidities or preoperative disabilities (n = 5), and the development of malignant brain tumors (n = 2). Four patients whose MMD was associated with a history of cranial radiation therapy died. These events occurred from as early as 2 years to as late as 27 years postoperatively.
The risk of late morbidities and mortality following pial synangiosis for MMD in the pediatric patient appeared to be low. Nevertheless, the occurrence of catastrophic cerebrovascular events, particularly intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage in the otherwise neurologically stable revascularized patient, was concerning. Although there is value in long-term surveillance of patients who have undergone surgery for MMD, from both a neurological and a general medical standpoint, particularly in patients with the risk factor of prior cranial radiation therapy, it is not clear from the data how the late deaths in this population could have been prevented.
Madeline B. Karsten, Steven J. Staffa, Craig D. McClain, Jennifer Amon, and Scellig S. D. Stone
Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) requires significant postoperative pain management, traditionally relying heavily on systemic opioids. Concern for short- and long-term effects of these agents has generated interest in reducing systemic opioid administration without sacrificing analgesia. Epidural analgesia has been applied in pediatric patients undergoing SDR; however, whether this reduces systemic opioid use has not been established. In this retrospective cohort study, the authors compared postoperative opioid use and clinical measures between patients treated with SDR who received postoperative epidural analgesia and those who received systemic analgesia only.
All patients who underwent SDR at Boston Children’s Hospital between June 2013 and November 2019 were reviewed. Treatment used the same surgical technique. Postoperative systemic opioid dosage (in morphine milligram equivalents per kilogram [MME/kg]), pain scores, need for respiratory support, vomiting, bowel movements, and length of hospital and ICU stay were compared between patients who received postoperative epidural analgesia and those who did not, by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Fisher’s exact test.
A total of 35 patients were identified, including 18 females (51.4%), with a median age at surgery of 6.1 years. Thirteen patients received postoperative epidural and systemic analgesia and 22 patients received systemic analgesia only. Groups were otherwise similar, with treatment selection based solely on surgeon routine. Patients who received epidural analgesia required less systemic morphine milligram equivalents/kg on postoperative days (PODs) 0–4 (p ≤ 0.042). Patients who did not receive epidural analgesia were more likely to require respiratory support on POD 1 (45% vs 8%; p = 0.027). Reported pain scores did not differ between groups, although patients receiving epidural analgesia trended toward less severe pain on PODs 1 and 2. Groups did not differ with respect to postoperative vomiting or time to first bowel movement, although epidural analgesia use was associated with a longer hospital stay (median 7 vs 5 days; p < 0.001).
Patients who received postoperative epidural analgesia required less systemic opioid use and had at least equivalent reported pain scores on PODs 1–4, and they required less respiratory support on POD 1, although they remained in the hospital longer when compared to patients who received systemic analgesia only. A larger prospective study is needed to confirm whether epidural analgesia lowers systemic opioid use in children, contributes to a safer postoperative hospital stay, and results in better pain control following SDR.