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M. Harrison Snyder, David T. Asuzu, Dawn E. Shaver, Mary Lee Vance, and John A. Jane Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a common problem during the postoperative course after pituitary surgery. Although treatment of this condition is well characterized, prevention strategies are less studied and reported. The authors sought to characterize outcomes and predictive factors of SIADH after implementation of routine postoperative fluid restriction for patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma.

METHODS

In March 2018, routine postoperative fluid restriction to 1000 ml/day for 7 days was instituted for all patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma. These patients were compared with patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma between March 2016 and March 2018, prior to implementation of routine fluid restriction. Patients with preoperative history of diabetes insipidus (DI) or concern for postsurgical DI were excluded. Patients were followed by neuroendocrinologists and neurosurgeons, and sodium levels were checked between 7 and 10 days postoperatively. SIADH was defined by a serum sodium level less than 136 mmol/L, with or without symptoms within 10 days after surgery. Thirty-day readmission was recorded and reviewed to determine underlying reasons.

RESULTS

In total, 82 patients in the fluid-unrestricted cohort and 135 patients in the fluid-restricted cohort were analyzed. The patients in the fluid-restricted cohort had a significantly lower rate of postoperative SIADH than patients in the fluid-unrestricted cohort (5% vs 15%, adjusted OR [95% CI] 0.1 [0.0–0.6], p = 0.01). Higher BMI was associated with lower rate of postoperative SIADH (adjusted OR [95%] 0.9 [0.9–1.0], p = 0.03), whereas female sex was associated with higher rate of SIADH (adjusted OR [95% CI] 3.1 [1.1–9.8], p = 0.03). There was no difference in the 30-day readmission rates between patients in the fluid-unrestricted and fluid-restricted cohorts (4% vs 7%, adjusted OR [95% CI] 0.5 [0–5.1], p = 0.56). Thirty-day readmission was more likely for patients with history of hypertension (adjusted OR [95% CI] 5.7 [1.3–26.3], p = 0.02) and less likely for White patients (adjusted OR [95% CI] 0.3 [0.1–0.9], p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS

Routine fluid restriction reduced the rate of SIADH in patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma but was not associated with reduction in 30-day readmission rate.

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Sauson Soldozy, Jacob Galindo, Harrison Snyder, Yusuf Ali, Pedro Norat, Kaan Yağmurlu, Jennifer D. Sokolowski, Khadijeh Sharifi, Petr Tvrdik, Min S. Park, and M. Yashar S. Kalani

Neuroimaging is an indispensable tool in the workup and management of patients with neurological disorders. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an imaging modality that permits the examination of blood flow and perfusion without the need for contrast injection. Noninvasive in nature, ASL provides a feasible alternative to existing vascular imaging techniques, including angiography and perfusion imaging. While promising, ASL has yet to be fully incorporated into the diagnosis and management of neurological disorders. This article presents a review of the most recent literature on ASL, with a special focus on its use in moyamoya disease, brain neoplasms, seizures, and migraines and a commentary on recent advances in ASL that make the imaging technique more attractive as a clinically useful tool.

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M. Harrison Snyder, Leonel Ampie, Vernon J. Forrester, JoAnne C. Wilson, James H. Nguyen, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Avery L. Buchholz

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis that is most often associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but which can occur as a pathergic reaction around surgical incisions. The authors report the case of a patient who developed postoperative PG over the course of several months after undergoing extensive spinal instrumentation between the T4 and iliac levels. This is only the second such case occurring after spine surgery to be reported. The authors additionally review the literature to characterize treatment approaches and outcomes for this condition. The case highlights a potentially severe adverse effect of surgery that can be difficult to recognize and causes delays in effective treatment. It also demonstrates the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration in the effective care of patients.

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Matthew J. Shepard, M. Harrison Snyder, Sauson Soldozy, Leonel L. Ampie, Saul F. Morales-Valero, and John A. Jane Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Early surgical intervention for patients with pituitary apoplexy (PA) is thought to improve visual outcomes and decrease mortality. However, some patients may have good clinical outcomes without surgery. The authors sought to compare the radiological and clinical outcomes of patients with PA who were managed conservatively versus those who underwent early surgery.

METHODS

Patients with symptomatic PA were identified. Radiological, endocrinological, and ophthalmological data were reviewed. Patients with progressive visual deterioration or ophthalmoplegia were candidates for early surgery (within 7 days). Patients without visual symptoms or whose symptoms improved on high-dose steroids were treated conservatively. Log-rank and univariate analysis compared clinical and radiological outcomes between those receiving early surgery and those who underwent intended conservative management.

RESULTS

Sixty-four patients with PA were identified: 47 (73.4%) underwent intended conservative management, while 17 (26.6%) had early surgery. Patients receiving early surgery had increased rates of impaired visual acuity (VA; 64.7% vs 27.7%, p = 0.009); visual field (VF) deficits (64.7% vs 19.2%, p = 0.002); and cranial neuropathies (58.8% vs 29.8%, p < 0.05) at presentation. Tumor volumes were greater in the early surgical cohort (15.1 ± 14.8 cm3 vs 4.5 ± 10.3 cm3, p < 0.001). The median clinical and radiological follow-up visits were longer in the early surgical cohort (70.0 and 64.4 months vs 26.0 and 24.7 months, respectively; p < 0.001). Among those with VA/VF deficits, visual outcomes were similar between both groups (p > 0.9). The median time to VA improvement (2.0 vs 3.0 months, p = 0.9; HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3–3.5) and the median time to VF improvement (2.0 vs 1.5 months; HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.3–2.6, p = 0.8) were similar across both cohorts. Cranial neuropathy improvement was more common in conservatively managed patients (HR 4.8, 95% CI 1.5–15.4, p < 0.01). Conservative management failed in 7 patients (14.9%) and required surgery. PA volumes spontaneously regressed in 95.0% of patients (38/40) with successful conservative management, with a 6-month regression rate of 66.2%. Twenty-seven patients (19 in the conservative and 8 in the early surgical cohorts) responded to a prospectively administered Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25). VFQ-25 scores were similar across both cohorts (conservative 95.5 ± 3.8, surgery 93.2 ± 5.1, p = 0.3). Younger age, female sex, and patients with VF deficits or chiasmal compression were more likely to experience unsuccessful conservative management. Surgical outcomes were similar for patients receiving early versus delayed surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

These data suggest that a majority of patients with PA can be successfully managed without surgical intervention assuming close neurosurgical, radiological, and ophthalmological follow-up is available.

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M. Harrison Snyder, Ching-Jen Chen, Faraz Farzad, Natasha Ironside, Ryan T. Kellogg, Andrew M. Southerland, Min S. Park, Jason P. Sheehan, and Dale Ding

OBJECTIVE

A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA) suggested that medical management afforded outcomes superior to those following intervention for unruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), but its findings have been controversial. Subsequent studies of AVMs that would have met the eligibility requirements of ARUBA have supported intervention for the management of some cases. The present meta-analysis was conducted with the object of summarizing interventional outcomes for ARUBA-eligible patients reported in the literature.

METHODS

A systematic literature search (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar) for AVM intervention studies that used inclusion criteria identical to those of ARUBA (age ≥ 18 years, no history of AVM hemorrhage, no prior intervention) was performed. The primary outcome was death or symptomatic stroke. Secondary outcomes included AVM obliteration, hemorrhage, death, and poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 2 at final follow-up). Bias assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and the results were synthesized as pooled proportions.

RESULTS

Of the 343 articles identified through database searches, 13 studies met the inclusion criteria, yielding an overall study cohort of 1909 patients. The primary outcome occurred in 11.2% of patients (pooled = 11%, 95% CI 8%–13%). The rates of AVM obliteration, hemorrhage, poor outcome, and death were 72.7% (pooled = 78%, 95% CI 70%–85%), 8.4% (pooled = 8%, 95% CI 6%–11%), 9.9% (pooled = 10%, 95% CI 7%–13%), and 3.5% (pooled = 2%, 95% CI 1%–4%), respectively. Annualized primary outcome and hemorrhage risks were 1.85 (pooled = 2.05, 95% CI 1.31–2.94) and 1.34 (pooled = 1.41, 95% CI 0.83–2.13) per 100 patient-years, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Intervention for unruptured AVMs affords acceptable outcomes for appropriately selected patients. The risk of hemorrhage following intervention compared favorably to the natural history of unruptured AVMs. The included studies were retrospective and varied in treatment and AVM characteristics, thereby limiting the generalizability of their data. Future studies from prospective registries may clarify patient, nidus, and intervention selection criteria that will refine the challenging management of patients with unruptured AVMs.

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M. Harrison Snyder, Natasha Ironside, Jeyan S. Kumar, Kevin T. Doan, Ryan T. Kellogg, J. Javier Provencio, Robert M. Starke, Min S. Park, Dale Ding, and Ching-Jen Chen

OBJECTIVE

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The authors performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of antiplatelet therapy (APT) on DCI in patients with aSAH.

METHODS

A systematic review of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was performed. Study inclusion criteria were 1) ≥ 5 aSAH patients; 2) direct comparison between aSAH management with APT and without APT; and 3) reporting of DCI, angiographic, or symptomatic vasospasm rates for patients treated with versus without APT. The primary efficacy outcome was DCI. The outcomes of the APT versus no-APT cohorts were compared. Bias was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist.

RESULTS

The overall cohort comprised 2039 patients from 15 studies. DCI occurred less commonly in the APT compared with the no-APT cohort (pooled = 15.9% vs 28.6%; OR 0.47, p < 0.01). Angiographic (pooled = 51.6% vs 68.7%; OR 0.46, p < 0.01) and symptomatic (pooled = 23.6% vs 37.7%; OR 0.51, p = 0.01) vasospasm rates were lower in the APT cohort. In-hospital mortality (pooled = 1.7% vs 4.1%; OR 0.53, p = 0.01) and functional dependence (pooled = 21.0% vs 35.7%; OR 0.53, p < 0.01) rates were also lower in the APT cohort. Bleeding event rates were comparable between the two cohorts. Subgroup analysis of cilostazol monotherapy compared with no APT demonstrated a lower DCI rate in the cilostazol cohort (pooled = 10.6% vs 28.1%; OR 0.31, p < 0.01). Subgroup analysis of surgically treated aneurysms demonstrated a lower DCI rate for the APT cohort (pooled = 18.4% vs 33.9%; OR 0.43, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

APT is associated with improved outcomes in aSAH without an increased risk of bleeding events, particularly in patients who underwent surgical aneurysm repair and those treated with cilostazol. Although study heterogeneity is the most significant limitation of the analysis, the findings suggest that APT is worth exploring in patients with aSAH, particularly in a randomized controlled trial setting.

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M. Harrison Snyder, Vamsi P. Reddy, Ankitha M. Iyer, Aruna Ganju, Nathan R. Selden, Jeremiah N. Johnson, Stacey Q. Wolfe, and on behalf of the Society of Neurological Surgeons and American Association of Neurological Surgeons Young Neurosurgeons Committee

OBJECTIVE

The COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant disruption to residency recruitment, including a sudden, comprehensive transition to virtual interviews. The authors sought to characterize applicant experiences and perceptions concerning the change in the application, interview, and match process for neurological surgery residency during the 2020–2021 recruitment cycle.

METHODS

A national survey of neurosurgical residency applicants from the 2020–2021 application cycle was performed. This survey was developed in cooperation with the Society of Neurological Surgeons (SNS) and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Young Neurosurgeons Committee (YNC) and sent to all applicants (n = 280) who included academic video submissions to the SNS repository as part of their application package. These 280 applicants accounted for 69.6% of the total 402 neurosurgical applicants this year.

RESULTS

Nearly half of the applicants responded to the survey (44.3%, 124 of 280). Applicants favored additional reform of the interview scheduling process, including a centralized scheduling method, a set of standardized release dates for interview invitations, and interview caps for applicants. Less than 8% of students desired a virtual-only platform in the future, though the majority of applicants supported incorporating virtual interviews as part of the process to contain applicant costs and combining them with traditional in-person interview opportunities. Program culture and fit, as well as clinical and research opportunities in subspecialty areas, were the most important factors applicants used to rank programs. However, subjective program "fit" was deemed challenging to assess during virtual-only interviews.

CONCLUSIONS

Neurosurgery resident applicants identified standardized interview invitation release dates, centralized interview scheduling methods, caps on the number of interviews available to each candidate, and regulated opportunities for both virtual and in-person recruitment as measures that could significantly improve the applicant experience during and effectiveness of future neurosurgery residency application cycles. Applicants prioritized program culture and "fit" during recruitment, and a majority were open to incorporating virtual elements into future cycles to reduce costs while retaining in-person opportunities to gauge programs and their locations.

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S. Harrison Farber, David J. Mauler, Soumya Sagar, Mark A. Pacult, Corey T. Walker, Michael A. Bohl, Laura A. Snyder, Kristina M. Chapple, Volker K. H. Sonntag, Juan S. Uribe, Jay D. Turner, Steve W. Chang, and U. Kumar Kakarla

OBJECTIVE

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a common and robust procedure performed on the cervical spine. Literature on ACDF for 4 or more segments is sparse. Increasing the number of operative levels increases surgical complexity, tissue retraction, and risks of complications, particularly dysphagia. The overall risks of these complications and rates of dysphagia are not well studied for surgery on 4 or more segments. In this study, the authors evaluated their institution’s perioperative experience with 4- and 5-level ACDFs.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent 4- or 5-level ACDF at their institution over a 6-year period (May 2013–May 2019). Patient demographics, perioperative complications, readmission rates, and swallowing outcomes were recorded. Outcomes were analyzed with a multivariate linear regression.

RESULTS

A total of 174 patients were included (167 had 4-level and 7 had 5-level ACDFs). The average age was 60.6 years, and 54.0% of patients (n = 94) were men. A corpectomy was performed in 12.6% of patients (n = 22). After surgery, 56.9% of patients (n = 99) experienced dysphagia. The percentage of patients with dysphagia decreased to 22.8% (37/162) at 30 days, 12.9% (17/132) at 90 days, and 6.3% (5/79) and 2.8% (1/36) at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Dysphagia was more likely at 90 days postoperatively in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (OR 4.4 [95% CI 1.5–12.8], p = 0.008), and the mean (± SD) lordosis change was greater in patients with dysphagia than those without at 90 days (19.8° ± 13.3° vs 9.1° ± 10.2°, p = 0.003). Dysphagia occurrence did not differ with operative implants, including graft and interbody type. The mean length of time to solid food intake was 2.4 ± 2.1 days. Patients treated with dexamethasone were more likely to achieve solid food intake prior to discharge (OR 4.0 [95% CI 1.5–10.6], p = 0.004). Postsurgery, 5.2% of patients (n = 9) required a feeding tube due to severe approach-related dysphagia. Other perioperative complication rates were uniformly low. Overall, 8.6% of patients (n = 15) returned to the emergency department within 30 days and 2.9% (n = 5) required readmission, whereas 1.1% (n = 2) required unplanned return to surgery within 30 days.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the largest series of patients undergoing 4- and 5-level ACDFs reported to date. This procedure was performed safely with minimal intraoperative complications. More than half of the patients experienced in-hospital dysphagia, which increased their overall length of stay, but dysphagia decreased over time.

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Leonel Ampie, M. Harrison Snyder, Jose F. Dominguez, Avery Buchholz, Chun-Po Yen, Mark E. Shaffrey, Hasan R. Syed, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Justin S. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Primary spinal meningiomas represent a rare indolent neoplasm usually situated in the intradural-extramedullary compartment. They have a predilection for afflicting the thoracic spine and most frequently present with sensory and/or motor symptoms. Resection is the first-line treatment for symptomatic tumors, whereas other clinical factors will determine the need for adjuvant therapy. In this study, the authors aimed to elucidate clinical presentation, functional outcomes, and long-term outcomes in this population in order to better equip clinicians with the tools to counsel their patients.

METHODS

This is a retrospective analysis of patients treated at the authors’ institution between 1998 and 2018. All patients with thoracic meningiomas who underwent resection and completed at least one follow-up appointment were included. Multiple preoperative clinical variables, hospitalization details, and long-term outcomes were collected for the cohort.

RESULTS

Forty-six patients who underwent resection for thoracic meningiomas were included. The average age of the cohort was 59 years, and the median follow-up was 53 months. Persistent sensory and motor symptoms were present in 29 patients (63%). Fifteen lesions were ventrally positioned. There were 43 WHO grade I tumors, 2 WHO grade II tumors, and 1 WHO grade III tumor; the grade III tumor was the only case of recurrence. The median length of hospitalization was 4 days. Seventeen patients (37%) were discharged to rehabilitation facilities. Thirty patients (65.2%) experienced resolution or improvement of symptoms, and there were no deaths within 30 days of surgery. Only 1 patient developed painful kyphosis and was managed medically. Ventral tumor position, new postoperative deficits, and length of stay did not correlate with disposition to a facility. Age, ventral position, blood loss, and increasing WHO grade did not correlate with length of stay.

CONCLUSIONS

Outcomes are overall favorable for patients who undergo resection of thoracic meningiomas. Symptomatic patients often experience improvement, and patients generally do not require significant future operations. Tumors located ventrally, while anatomically challenging, do not necessarily herald a significantly worse prognosis or limit the extent of resection.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010