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Risheng Xu, Lydia Gregg, Sheng-fu Larry Lo, and Philippe Gailloud

Low-flow spinal extradural arteriovenous fistulas (SEAVFs) are frequently misdiagnosed as spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs), and their true prevalence is unknown. The principal feature distinguishing low-flow SEAVFs from SDAVFs is the location of the shunt, which involves a pouch of epidural plexus in SEAVFs and a radiculomedullary vein (RMV) in SDAVFs. A venous hypertensive myelopathy comparable to the one observed with SDAVFs develops when the arterialized venous pouch of an SEAVF is connected to an RMV. Depending on the size of the epidural pouch, a low-flow SEAVF may uncommonly drain into multiple RMVs. The authors present an observation of a low-flow SEAVF whose double radiculomedullary drainage was revealed only after intraoperative digital subtraction angiography, and they discuss the surgical implications of this anatomical configuration.