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Luke G. F. Smith, Nguyen Hoang, Ammar Shaikhouni and Stephanus Viljoen

Pedicle and lateral mass screws are the most common means of rigid fixation in posterior cervical spine fusions. Various other techniques such as translaminar screw placement, paravertebral foramen screw fixation, sublaminar and spinous process wiring, cement augmentation, and others have been developed for primary fixation or as salvage methods. Use of these techniques can be limited by a prior history of osteotomies, poor bone density, destruction of the bone-screw interface, and unfavorable vascular and osseous anatomy.

Here, the authors report on the novel application of cervical sublaminar polyester bands as an adjunct salvage method or additional fixation point used with traditional methods in the revision of prior constructs. While sublaminar polyester bands have been used for decades in pediatric scoliosis surgery in the thoracolumbar spine, they have yet to be utilized as a method of fixation in the cervical spine. In both cases described here, sublaminar banding proved crucial for fixation points where traditional fixation techniques would have been less than ideal. Further study is required to determine the full application of sublaminar polyester bands in the cervical spine as well as its outcomes.

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Stephen M. Bergin, Amy L. Dunn, Luke G. F. Smith and Annie I. Drapeau

The authors report on the clinical course of two infants with severe hemophilia A (HA) and concomitant progressive hydrocephalus that required management with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The first child, with known HA, presented with a spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and acquired hydrocephalus. He underwent cerebrospinal fluid diversion with a temporary external ventricular drain, followed by placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The second child had hydrocephalus secondary to a Dandy-Walker malformation and was diagnosed with severe HA during preoperative evaluation. He underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt after progression of the hydrocephalus. The authors also review the treatment of hydrocephalus in patients with HA and describe the perioperative protocols used in their two cases. Treatment of hydrocephalus in infants with HA requires unique perioperative management to avoid complications.

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Luke G. F. Smith, Eric Milliron, Mai-Lan Ho, Houchun H. Hu, Jerome Rusin, Jeffrey Leonard and Eric A. Sribnick

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition with many potential acute and chronic neurological consequences. Standard initial radiographic evaluation includes noncontrast head CT scanning to rapidly evaluate for pathology that might require intervention. The availability of fast, relatively inexpensive CT imaging has fundamentally changed the clinician’s ability to noninvasively visualize neuroanatomy. However, in the context of TBI, limitations of head CT without contrast include poor prognostic ability, inability to analyze cerebral perfusion status, and poor visualization of underlying posttraumatic changes to brain parenchyma. Here, the authors review emerging advanced imaging for evaluation of both acute and chronic TBI and include QuickBrain MRI as an initial imaging modality. Dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI, MR arterial spin labeling, and perfusion CT are reviewed as methods for examining cerebral blood flow following TBI. The authors evaluate MR-based diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI for prognostication of recovery post-TBI. Finally, MR elastography, MR spectroscopy, and convolutional neural networks are examined as future tools in TBI management. Many imaging technologies are being developed and studied in TBI, and some of these may hold promise in improving the understanding and management of TBI.

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David Dornbos III, Christy Monson, CNP, Andrew Look, Kristin Huntoon, Luke G. F. Smith, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Sanjay S. Dhall and Eric A. Sribnick

OBJECTIVE

While the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) has been effective in describing severity in traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is no current method for communicating the possible need for surgical intervention. This study utilizes a recently developed scoring system, the Surgical Intervention for Traumatic Injury (SITI) scale, which was developed to efficiently communicate the potential need for surgical decompression in adult patients with TBI. The objective of this study was to apply the SITI scale to a pediatric population to provide a tool to increase communication of possible surgical urgency.

METHODS

The SITI scale uses both radiographic and clinical findings, including the GCS score on presentation, pupillary examination, and CT findings. To examine the scale in pediatric TBI, a neurotrauma database at a level 1 pediatric trauma center was retrospectively evaluated, and the SITI score for all patients with an admission diagnosis of TBI between 2010 and 2015 was calculated. The primary endpoint was operative intervention, defined as a craniotomy or craniectomy for decompression, performed within the first 24 hours of admission.

RESULTS

A total of 1524 patients met inclusion criteria for the study during the 5-year span: 1469 (96.4%) were managed nonoperatively and 55 (3.6%) patients underwent emergent operative intervention. The mean SITI score was 4.98 ± 0.31 for patients undergoing surgical intervention and 0.41 ± 0.02 for patients treated nonoperatively (p < 0.0001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the SITI scale in this pediatric population and was found to be 0.98. Further evaluation of patients presenting with moderate to severe TBI revealed a mean SITI score of 5.51 ± 0.31 in 40 (15.3%) operative patients and 1.55 ± 0.02 in 221 (84.7%) nonoperative patients, with an AUROC curve of 0.95.

CONCLUSIONS

The SITI scale was designed to be a simple, objective communication tool regarding the potential need for surgical decompression after TBI. Application of this scale to a pediatric population reveals that the score correlated with the perceived need for emergent surgical intervention, further suggesting its potential utility in clinical practice.