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Robert J. Owen, Adam Z. Khan, Steven J. McAnany, Colleen Peters and Lukas P. Zebala


The aim of this study was to compare the patient-reported outcome measures Neck Disability Index (NDI) and visual analog scale (VAS) with the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical function (PF) and pain interference (PI) measures, respectively, and to determine their correlations in a surgical population longitudinally.

Legacy outcome measures such as NDI and VAS are essential for analyzing treatments in spine surgery for cervical disc herniations with radiculopathy. Despite their usefulness, administrative burdens impose limits on completion of these measures. PROMIS was developed as a patient outcome measure in order to improve reporting of patient symptoms and function and to reduce administrative burden. Despite early positive results of PROMIS in orthopedics, NDI and VAS scores have not been compared with PROMIS scores in patients with cervical disc herniations with radiculopathy.


Eighty patients undergoing surgery for cervical disc herniations with radiculopathy were included. All patients were treated at the same tertiary spine center. Patients were seen and PROMIS PF and PI, NDI, and VAS arm and neck pain scores were collected preoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively. Correlations between NDI, VAS, and PROMIS PF and PI were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. Two-tailed Student t-tests were used to demonstrate correlation significance, with alpha = 0.05.


All 80 (100%) patients completed all preoperative questionnaires. Fifty-seven (72%) and 75 (94%) patients completed all questionnaires at baseline and at the 6-month and 1-year follow-ups, respectively. PROMIS PF and NDI scores demonstrated a strong negative correlation, with Pearson r values of −0.81, −0.77, and −0.75 at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. PROMIS PI and VAS neck pain scores demonstrated a moderately positive correlation, with Pearson r values of 0.51, 0.61, and 0.6. PROMIS PI and VAS arm pain scores demonstrated a moderately positive correlation, with Pearson r values of 0.46, 0.47, and 0.45.


PROMIS PF scores have a strong negative correlation with NDI scores at baseline and in the postoperative course in patients undergoing surgery for cervical disc herniations with radiculopathy. PROMIS PI scores have a moderately positive correlation with VAS neck and arm pain scores at baseline and in the postoperative course. Surgeons may factor these correlation results into the interpretation of patient-reported outcome measures in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Use of PROMIS PF and PI for this patient population may reduce administrative burden while providing reliable outcomes data.

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Michael P. Kelly, Lukas P. Zebala, Han Jo Kim, Daniel M. Sciubba, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Eric Klineberg, Gregory Mundis Jr., Douglas Burton, Robert Hart, Alex Soroceanu, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage and International Spine Study Group


The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.


Patients undergoing single-stay ASD reconstructions were identified in a multicenter database. Patients were divided into groups according to PABD (either PABD or NoPABD). Propensity weighting was used to create matched cohorts of PABD and NoPABD patients. Allogeneic (ALLO) exposure, autologous (AUTO) wastage (unused AUTO), and complication rates were compared between groups.


Four hundred twenty-eight patients were identified as meeting eligibility criteria. Sixty patients were treated with PABD, of whom 50 were matched to 50 patients who were not treated with PABD (NoPABD). Nearly one-third of patients in the PABD group (18/60, 30%) did not receive any autologous transfusion and donated blood was wasted. In 6 of these cases (6/60, 10%), patients received ALLO blood transfusions without AUTO. In 9 cases (9/60, 15%), patients received ALLO and AUTO blood transfusions. Overall rates of transfusion of any type were similar between groups (PABD 70% [42/60], NoPABD 75% [275/368], p = 0.438). Major and minor in-hospital complications were similar between groups (Major PABD 10% [6/60], NoPABD 12% [43/368], p = 0.537; Minor PABD 30% [18/60], NoPABD 24% [87/368], p = 0.499). When controlling for potential confounders, PABD patients were more likely to receive some transfusion (OR 15.1, 95% CI 2.1-106.7). No relationship between PABD and ALLO blood exposure was observed, however, refuting the concept that PABD is protective against ALLO blood exposure. In the matched cohorts, PABD patients were more likely to sustain a major perioperative cardiac complication (PABD 8/50 [16%], NoPABD 1/50 [2%], p = 0.046). No differences in rates of infection or wound-healing complications were observed between cohorts.


Preoperative autologous blood donation was associated with a higher probability of perioperative transfusions of any type in patients with ASD. No protective effect of PABD against ALLO blood exposure was observed, and no risk of perioperative infectious complications was observed in patients exposed to ALLO blood only. The benefit of PABD in patients with ASD remains undefined.