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José Luis Thenier-Villa, Pablo Sanromán-Álvarez, Pablo Miranda-Lloret, and María Estela Plaza Ramírez

OBJECTIVE

One of the principles of the surgical treatment of craniosynostosis includes the release of fused bone plates to prevent recurrence. Such bone defects require a reossification process after surgery to prevent a cosmetic problem or brain vulnerability to damage. The objective of this study is to describe and analyze the radiological and clinical evolution of bone defects after craniosynostosis.

METHODS

From January 2005 to May 2016, 248 infants underwent surgical correction of craniosynostosis at HUiP La Fe Valencia; the authors analyzed data from 216 of these cases that met the inclusion criteria for this study. Various surgical techniques were used according to the age of the patient and severity of the case, including endoscopic-assisted suturectomy, open suturectomy, fronto-orbital advancement, and cranial vault remodeling. Clinical follow-up and radiological quantitative measurements in 2 periods—12–24 months and 2 years after surgery—were analyzed; 94 patients had a postoperative CT scan and were included in the radiological analysis.

RESULTS

At the end of the follow-up period, 92 of 216 patients (42.59%) showed complete closure of the bone defect, 112 patients (51.85%) had minor bone defects, and 12 patients (5.56%) had significant bone defects that required surgical intervention. In the multivariate analysis, age at first surgery was not significantly associated with incomplete reossification (p = 0.15), nor was surgical site infection (p = 0.75). Multivariate analysis identified area of cranial defect greater than 5 cm2 in the first CT scan as predictive of incomplete reossification (p = 0.04). The mean area of cranial defect in the first CT scan (12–24 months after surgery) was 3.69 cm2 in patients treated with open surgery and 7.13 cm2 in those treated with endoscopic-assisted procedures; in the multivariate analysis, type of procedure was not related to incomplete reossification (p = 0.46). The positive predictive value of palpation as evaluation of bone cranial defects was 50% for significant defects and 71% for minor defects.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of cranial defects due to incomplete reossification requiring cranioplasty was 5.56% in our series. Defects greater than 5 cm2 in the first postoperative CT scan showed a positive association with incomplete reossification. Patients treated with endoscope-assisted procedures had larger defects in the initial follow-up, but the final incidence of cranial defects was not significantly different in the endoscope-assisted surgery group from that in the open surgery group.

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Patient outcomes and tumor control in single-fraction versus hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy for spinal metastases

Presented at the 2020 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves

Christine Park, Elizabeth P. Howell, Vikram A. Mehta, Luis Ramirez, Meghan J. Price, Scott R. Floyd, John P. Kirkpatrick, Jordan Torok, Muhammad M. Abd-El-Barr, Isaac O. Karikari, and C. Rory Goodwin

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) offers efficient, noninvasive treatment of spinal neoplasms. Single-fraction (SF) high-dose SBRT has a relatively narrow therapeutic window, while hypofractionated delivery of SBRT may have an improved safety profile with similar efficacy. Because the optimal approach of delivery is unknown, the authors examined whether hypofractionated SBRT improves pain and/or functional outcomes and results in better tumor control compared with SF-SBRT.

METHODS

This is a single-institution retrospective study of adult patients with spinal metastases treated with SF- or three-fraction (3F) SBRT from 2008 to 2019. Demographics and baseline characteristics, radiographic data, and posttreatment outcomes at a minimum follow-up of 3 months are reported.

RESULTS

Of the 156 patients included in the study, 70 (44.9%) underwent SF-SBRT (median total dose 1700 cGy) and 86 (55.1%) underwent 3F-SBRT (median total dose 2100 cGy). At baseline, a higher proportion of patients in the 3F-SBRT group had a worse baseline profile, including severity of pain (p < 0.05), average use of pain medication (p < 0.001), and functional scores (p < 0.05) compared with the SF-SBRT cohort. At the 3-month follow-up, the 3F-SBRT cohort experienced a greater frequency of improvement in pain compared with the SF-SBRT group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, patients treated with 3F-SBRT demonstrated a higher frequency of improved Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores (p < 0.05) compared with those treated with SF-SBRT, with no significant difference in the frequency of improvement in modified Rankin Scale scores. Local tumor control did not differ significantly between the two cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients who received spinal 3F-SBRT more frequently achieved significant pain relief and an increased frequency of improvement in KPS compared with those treated with SF-SBRT. Local tumor control was similar in the two groups. Future work is needed to establish the relationship between fractionation schedule and clinical outcomes.