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Daniel García-Pérez, Irene Panero-Pérez, Carla Eiriz Fernández, Luis Miguel Moreno-Gomez, Olga Esteban-Sinovas, Blanca Navarro-Main, Pedro A. Gómez López, Ana M. Castaño-León, and Alfonso Lagares

OBJECTIVE

Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Surgical evacuation is the mainstay of treatment in patients with altered neurological status or significant mass effect. Nevertheless, concerns regarding surgical indication still persist. Given that clinicians often make therapeutic decisions on the basis of their prognosis assessment, to accurately evaluate the prognosis is of great significance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of specific and reliable prognostic models. In addition, the interdependence of certain well-known predictive variables usually employed to guide surgical decision-making in ASDH has been proven. Because gray matter and white matter are highly susceptible to secondary insults during the early phase after TBI, the authors aimed to assess the extent of these secondary insults with a brain parenchyma densitometric quantitative CT analysis and to evaluate its prognostic capacity.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis among their prospectively collected cohort of patients with moderate to severe TBI. Patients with surgically evacuated, isolated, unilateral ASDH admitted between 2010 and 2017 were selected. Thirty-nine patients were included. For each patient, brain parenchyma density in Hounsfield units (HUs) was measured in 10 selected slices from the supratentorial region. In each slice, different regions of interest (ROIs), including and excluding the cortical parenchyma, were defined. The injured hemisphere, the contralateral hemisphere, and the absolute differences between them were analyzed. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended at 1 year after TBI.

RESULTS

Fifteen patients (38.5%) had a favorable outcome. Collected demographic, clinical, and radiographic data did not show significant differences between favorable and unfavorable outcomes. In contrast, the densitometric analysis demonstrated that greater absolute differences between both hemispheres were associated with poor outcome. These differences were detected along the supratentorial region, but were greater at the high convexity level. Moreover, these HU differences were far more marked at the cortical parenchyma. It was also detected that these differences were more prone to ischemic and/or edematous insults than to hyperemic changes. Age was significantly correlated with the side-to-side HU differences in patients with unfavorable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

The densitometric analysis is a promising prognostic tool in patients diagnosed with ASDH. The supplementary prognostic information provided by the densitometric analysis should be evaluated in future studies.

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Pablo M. Munarriz, Blanca Navarro-Main, Jose F. Alén, Luis Jiménez-Roldán, Ana M. Castaño-Leon, Luis Miguel Moreno-Gómez, Igor Paredes, Daniel García-Pérez, Irene Panero, Carla Eiriz, Olga Esteban-Sinovas, Eduardo Bárcena, Pedro A. Gómez, and Alfonso Lagares

OBJECTIVE

Factors determining the risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms have been extensively studied; however, little attention is paid to variables influencing the volume of bleeding after rupture. In this study the authors aimed to evaluate the impact of aneurysm morphological variables on the amount of hemorrhage.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected data set of 116 patients presenting at a single center with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysmal rupture. A volumetric assessment of the total hemorrhage volume was performed from the initial noncontrast CT. Aneurysms were segmented and reproduced from the initial CT angiography study, and morphology indexes were calculated with a computer-assisted approach. Clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients were included in the study. Factors influencing the volume of hemorrhage were explored with univariate correlations, multiple linear regression analysis, and graphical probabilistic modeling.

RESULTS

The univariate analysis demonstrated that several of the morphological variables but only the patient’s age from the clinical-demographic variables correlated (p < 0.05) with the volume of bleeding. Nine morphological variables correlated positively (absolute height, perpendicular height, maximum width, sac surface area, sac volume, size ratio, bottleneck factor, neck-to-vessel ratio, and width-to-vessel ratio) and two correlated negatively (parent vessel average diameter and the aneurysm angle). After multivariate analysis, only the aneurysm size ratio (p < 0.001) and the patient’s age (p = 0.023) remained statistically significant. The graphical probabilistic model confirmed the size ratio and the patient’s age as the variables most related to the total hemorrhage volume.

CONCLUSIONS

A greater aneurysm size ratio and an older patient age are likely to entail a greater volume of bleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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Ana M. Castaño-Leon, Cristina Sánchez Carabias, Amaya Hilario, Ana Ramos, Blanca Navarro-Main, Igor Paredes, Pablo M. Munarriz, Irene Panero, Carla Eiriz Fernández, Daniel García-Pérez, Luis Miguel Moreno-Gomez, Olga Esteban-Sinovas, Guillermo Garcia Posadas, Pedro A. Gomez, and Alfonso Lagares

OBJECTIVE

Diagnosis of traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is challenging because of its underestimation by conventional MRI and the technical requirements associated with the processing of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Serum biomarkers seem to be able to identify patients with abnormal CT scanning findings, but their potential role to assess TAI has seldomly been explored.

METHODS

Patients with all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were prospectively included in this study between 2016 and 2021. They underwent blood extraction within 24 hours after injury and imaging assessment, including DTI. Serum concentrations of glial fibrillary acidic protein, total microtubule-associated protein (t-Tau), ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and neurofilament light chain (NfL) were measured using an ultrasensitive Simoa multiplex assay panel, a digital form of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended score was determined at 6 months after TBI. The relationships between biomarker concentrations, volumetric analysis of corpus callosum (CC) lesions, and fractional anisotropy (FA) were analyzed by nonparametric tests. The prognostic utility of the biomarker was determined by calculating the C-statistic and an ordinal regression analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 87 patients were included. Concentrations of all biomarkers were significantly higher for patients compared with controls. Although the concentration of the biomarkers was affected by the presence of mass lesions, FA of the CC was an independent factor influencing levels of UCH-L1 and NfL, which positioned these two biomarkers as better surrogates of TAI. Biomarkers also performed well in determining patients who would have had unfavorable outcome. NfL and the FA of the CC are independent complementary factors related to outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

UCH-L1 and NfL seem to be the biomarkers more specific to detect TAI. The concentration of NfL combined with the FA of the CC might help predict long-term outcome.