Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Loyola V. Gressot x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Loyola V. Gressot, Javier A. Mata, Thomas G. Luerssen and Andrew Jea

Spondyloptosis refers to complete dislocation of a vertebral body onto another. The L5–S1 level is frequently affected. As this condition is rare, few published reports describing its clinical features and surgical outcomes exist, especially in the pediatric patient population.

The authors report the presentation, pathological findings, and radiographic studies of a 2-year-old girl who presented to Texas Children's Hospital with a history since birth of progressive spastic paraparesis. Preoperative CT and MRI showed severe spinal cord compression associated with T11–12 spondyloptosis. The patient underwent a single-stage posterior approach for complete resection of the dysplastic vertebral bodies at the apex of the spinal deformity with reconstruction and stabilization of the vertebral column using a titanium expandable cage and pedicle screws. At the 12-month follow-up, the patient remained neurologically stable without any radiographic evidence of instrumentation failure or loss of alignment.

To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been only 2 other children with congenital thoracolumbar spondyloptosis treated with the above-described strategy. The authors describe their case and review the literature to discuss the aggregate clinical features, surgical strategies, and operative outcomes for congenital thoracolumbar spondyloptosis.

Restricted access

Loyola V. Gressot, Akash J. Patel, Robert J. Bollo, Carrie A. Mohila and Andrew Jea

Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare disease that is part of a spectrum of histiocytic dendritic cell disorders. The authors report an unusual case of a 6-week-old male who presented with seizures. Neuroimaging revealed disseminated intracranial disease involving the optic apparatus, basal ganglia, lateral ventricles, and brainstem. The patient did not have any cutaneous lesions or evidence of extracranial disease. The patient underwent open biopsy of a large right midbrain lesion; pathology was consistent with JXG. He underwent postoperative chemotherapy and is doing well 7 months after surgery with regression of the intracranial lesions. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a neonate with disseminated intracranial JXG without cutaneous stigmata.

Restricted access

Steven W. Hwang, Loyola V. Gressot, Joshua J. Chern, Katherine Relyea and Andrew Jea

Object

Occipitocervical stabilization in the pediatric age group remains a challenge because of the regional anatomy, poor occipital bone purchase, and, in some instances, significant thinning of the occipital bone. Multiple bicortical fixation points to the occipital bone may be required to increase construct rigidity. The authors evaluated the complications of bicortical occipital screw placement in children with occipital fusion constructs.

Methods

The records of 20 consecutive pediatric patients who had undergone occipitocervical fusion between September 1, 2007, and November 30, 2010, at Texas Children's Hospital were reviewed.

Results

The patients consisted of 10 girls and 10 boys, ranging in age from 10 months to 16 years (mean ± SD, 7.7 ± 5.1 years). Two patients were lost to follow-up, 2 died for reasons unrelated to the surgery, and the remaining patients had at least 3 months of follow-up (mean 14 ± 11.8 months) with evaluation via dynamic radiography and CT. Four patients experienced 8 complications: 2 CSF leaks, 2 vigorous venous bleedings, worsening of quadriparesis, wound infection, radiographic pseudarthrosis, and transient dysphagia. Among 114 screws, there were 2 cases of intraoperative dural venous sinus injury and 2 cases of intraoperative CSF leakage, without clinical sequelae from these complications. Only 1 case of radiographic pseudarthrosis was identified in a patient with skeletal dysplasia and a prior failed C1–2 posterior arthrodesis. There were no difficulties with wound healing because of prominent occipital instrumentation, and there was only 1 wound infection.

Conclusions

Data in this report confirm that including bicortical occipital screw placement in occipitocervical constructs in children may result in a high fusion rate but at the cost of a notable complication rate.

Full access

Loyola V. Gressot, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Steven W. Hwang, Daniel H. Fulkerson, Thomas G. Luerssen and Andrew Jea

Object

Cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition that results from a pars interarticularis defect. The C-6 level is the most frequently involved site in the cervical spine. Its clinical presentations range from incidental radiographic findings to neck pain and, rarely, neurological deficits. Although 150 patients with subaxial cervical spondylolysis have been reported, a mere 24 adult and pediatric patients with C-2 spondylolysis have been described. The long-term outcomes of very young children with bilateral C-2 spondylolysis are of great interest, yet only a few longitudinal studies exist.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 5 cases of bilateral C-2 spondylolysis at Texas Children's Hospital and Riley Children's Hospital; these were combined with 5 other cases in the literature, yielding a total of 10 patients. Data regarding the patients' age, sex, C2–3 angulation and displacement, associated spine anomalies, neurological deficits, treatment, and most recent follow-up were recorded.

Results

The patients' ages ranged from 3 to 36 months (mean 12.9 months). There were 6 boys and 4 girls. The C2–3 angulation, displacement, and width of pars defect were measured when available. The mean C2–3 angulation was 9.5° (range 1–34°), the mean C2–3 displacement was 4.78 mm (range 1.1–10.8 mm), and the mean width of the pars defect was 4.16 mm (range 0.9–7 mm). One patient developed myelopathy and spinal cord injury. All 10 of the patients were treated initially with conservative therapy: 3 with close observation alone, 1 with a rigid cervical collar, 4 with a Minerva jacket, 1 with a sternal-occipital-mandibular immobilizer, and 1 with a halo vest. Three patients ultimately underwent surgery for internal fixation due to progressive instability or development of neurological symptoms. All patients were neurologically intact at the last follow-up (mean 44.3 months, range 14–120 months).

Conclusions

Based on the literature and the authors' own experience, they conclude that most very young children with C-2 spondylolysis remain neurologically intact and maintain stability in long-term follow-up despite the bony defect. This defect is often an asymptomatic incidental finding and may be managed conservatively. More aggressive therapy including surgery is indicated for those patients with a neurological deficit from spinal cord compromise secondary to stenosis and local C-2 kyphosis, progressive deformity, or worsening C2–3 instability.

Full access

Loyola V. Gressot, Carrie A. Mohila, Andrew Jea, Thomas G. Luerssen and Robert J. Bollo

Nonterminal myelocystocele is a rare type of spinal dysraphism characterized by a closed defect with an underlying CSF-filled cyst, either contiguous with the central spinal canal or attached to the spinal cord by a fibrovascular stalk. The authors report the unusual case of a neonate with a prenatal diagnosis of cervicothoracic nonterminal myelocystocele who underwent postnatal surgical untethering of the lesion. Pathological analysis of the excised lesion revealed neuroglial tissue with an ependymal lining associated with a mature teratoma. Three months after surgery, the patient has normal lower-extremity sensorimotor function and no evidence of bowel or bladder dysfunction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with a nonterminal myelocystocele found to have an associated mature teratoma.

Full access

Loyola V. Gressot, Akash J. Patel, Steven W. Hwang, Daniel H. Fulkerson and Andrew Jea

Object

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a challenging pathology to treat. Surgical correction can involve long fusion constructs extending to the pelvis. The deformity inherent in these patients makes it difficult to obtain adequate lateral intraoperative radiographs for traditional image-guided placement of iliac screws.

Methods

A clinical and radiographic assessment of 14 patients with neuromuscular spinal deformity was conducted. From 2007 to 2013, 12 of these patients (mean age 14.25 years, range 10–20 years) underwent long spinal instrumentation (mean 15 levels, range 10–18 levels) and fusion to the pelvis, and 2 underwent placement of a growing rod construct with iliac screw placement at a single institution. The average length of follow-up was 33.7 months (range 6–64 months). Iliac screws were placed after identifying the posterior superior iliac spine and using only anteroposterior fluoroscopy (view of the inlet of the pelvis), rather than the technique of direct palpation of the sciatic notch. The accuracy of iliac screw placement was assessed with routine postoperative CT.

Results

A total of 12 patients had 24 screws placed as part of a long-segment fusion to the pelvis, and 2 patients had two iliac screws placed as part of a growing rod construct for neuromuscular scoliosis. There were no iliac screw misplacements, and no complications directly related to the technique of iliac screw placement. For cases of definitive fusion (n = 12), the average coronal Cobb angle of patients with neuromuscular spinal deformity measured 62° before surgery and 44.3° immediately after surgery. The average preoperative thoracic kyphosis and lumbar sagittal lordosis measured 37.3° and 60.7°, respectively. Immediately after surgery, the thoracic and lumbar angles measured 30° and 41.1°, respectively. At last follow-up, the average coronal Cobb angle was maintained at 45.1°, and the thoracic and lumbar sagittal angles were maintained at 32.8° and 45.3°, respectively.

Conclusions

A less invasive technique for iliac screw placement can be performed safely with a low likelihood of screw misplacement. This technique offers the biomechanical advantages of iliac fixation without the soft tissue exposure typically needed for safe screw insertion. The technique relies on identification of the posterior superior iliac spine and high quality anteroposterior fluoroscopic imaging for a view of the pelvic inlet.

Full access

Caroline Hadley, Loyola V. Gressot, Akash J. Patel, Lisa L. Wang, Ricardo J. Flores, William E. Whitehead, Thomas G. Luerssen, Andrew Jea and Robert J. Bollo

Cranial osteosarcoma is very rare in children, rendering the development of optimal treatment algorithms challenging. The authors present 3 cases of pediatric cranial osteosarcoma: a primary calvarial tumor, a cranial metastasis, and a primary osteosarcoma of the cranial base. A review of the literature demonstrates significant variation in the management of cranial osteosarcomas and the outcome for patients with these tumors. This series and literature review is presented to improve the understanding of pediatric cranial osteosarcoma and to reinforce the importance of maximal resection in optimizing outcome.

Restricted access

Steven W. Hwang, Loyola V. Gressot, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, William E. Whitehead, Daniel J. Curry, Robert J. Bollo, Thomas G. Luerssen and Andrew Jea

Object

The most common cause of cervical spine arthrodesis in the pediatric population is instability related to congenital or traumatic pathology. Instrumenting the cervical spine can be challenging given smaller anatomical structures, less ossified bone, and future growth potential and development. Studies in adult patients have suggested that using screw constructs results in improved outcomes with lower rates of instrumentation failure. However, the pediatric literature is limited to small retrospective series. Based on a review of the literature and their own patient series, the authors report that instrumenting the pediatric cervical spine with screw constructs may be safer and more effective than using wiring techniques.

Methods

The authors reviewed the existing pediatric cervical spine arthrodesis literature and contributed 31 of their own cases from September 1, 2007, to January 1, 2011. They reviewed 204 abstracts from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 2010, and 80 manuscripts with 883 total patients were included in the review. They recorded demographic, radiographic, and outcomes data—as well as surgical details—with a focus on fusion rates and complications.

Patients were then grouped into categories based upon the procedure performed: 1) patients who underwent fusions bridging the occipitocervical junction and 2) patients who underwent fusion of the cervical spine that did not include the occiput, thus including atlantoaxial and subaxial fusions. Patients were further subdivided according to the type of instrumentation used—some had posterior cervical fusion with wiring (with or without rod implantation); others had posterior cervical fusion with screws.

Results

The entire series comprised 914 patients with a mean age of 8.30 years. Congenital abnormalities were encountered most often (in 55% of cases), and patients had a mean follow-up of 32.5 months. From the entire cohort, 242 patients (26%) experienced postsurgical complications, and 50 patients (5%) had multiple complications. The overall fusion rate was 94.4%.

For occipitocervical fusions (N = 285), both screw and wiring groups had very high fusion rates (99% and 95%, respectively, p = 0.08). However, wiring was associated with a higher complication rate. From a sample of 252 patients, 14% of those treated with screw instrumentation had complications, compared with 50% of patients treated with wiring (p < 0.05).

In cervical fusions not involving the occipitocervical junction (N = 181), screw constructs had a 99% fusion rate, whereas wire instrumentation only had an 83% fusion rate (p < 0.05). Similarly, patients who underwent screw fixation had a lower complication profile (15%) when compared with those treated with wiring constructs (54%, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The results of this study are limited by variations in construct design, use of orthoses, follow-up duration, and newer adjuvant products promoting fusions. However, a literature review and the authors' own series of pediatric cases suggest that instrumentation of the cervical spine in children may be safer and more efficacious using screw constructs rather than wiring techniques.

Full access

Loyola V. Gressot, Roukoz B. Chamoun, Akash J. Patel, Alex B. Valadka, Dima Suki, Claudia S. Robertson and Shankar P. Gopinath

Object

Prediction of outcome from initial presentation after a gunshot wound to the head (GSWH) is essential to further clinical decision making. The authors' goals are to report the survival and functional outcomes of these patients, to identify prognostic factors, and to propose a scoring system that can predict their outcome.

Methods

The records of 199 patients admitted with a GSWH with dural penetration between 1990 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criterion was a CT scan available for review. Patients declared brain dead on presentation were excluded, which yielded a series of 119 patients. Statistical analysis was performed using a logistic regression model.

Results

Fifty-eight (49%) of the 119 patients died. Twenty-three patients (19%) had a favorable outcome defined as a 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of moderate disability or good recovery, 35 (29%) had a poor outcome (GOS of persistent vegetative state or severe disability), and 3 (3%) were lost to follow-up. Significant prognostic factors for mortality were age older than 35 years, nonreactive pupils, bullet trajectory of bihemispheric (excluding bifrontal), and posterior fossa involvement compared with unihemispheric and bifrontal. Factors that were moderately associated with higher mortality included intracranial pressure (ICP) above 20 mm Hg and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at presentation of 3 or 4. Upon multivariate analysis, the significant factors for mortality were bullet trajectory and pupillary response. Variables found to be significant for good functional outcome were admission GCS score greater than or equal to 5, pupillary reactivity, and bullet trajectory of unihemispheric or bifrontal. Factors moderately associated with good outcome included age of 35 years or younger, initial ICP 20 mm Hg or lower, and lack of transventricular trajectory. In the multivariate analysis, significant factors for good functional outcome were bullet trajectory and pupillary response, with age moderately associated with improved functional outcomes. The authors also propose a scoring system to estimate survival and functional outcome.

Conclusions

Age, pupils, GCS score, and bullet trajectory on CT scan can be used to determine likelihood of survival and good functional outcome. The authors advocate assessing patients based on these parameters rather than pronouncing a poor prognosis and withholding aggressive resuscitation based upon low GCS score alone.