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Louis J. Kim

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Louis J. Kim, Farzana Tariq and Laligam N. Sekhar


Cerebral bypass is a useful microsurgical technique for the treatment of unclippable aneurysms and invasive skull base tumors. The authors present the largest reported series of cerebrovascular bypasses in the pediatric population. They describe the short- and long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of extracranial-intracranial and local bypasses performed for complex cerebral aneurysms and recurrent, invasive, and malignant skull base tumors in pediatric patients.


A consecutive series of 17 pediatric patients who underwent revascularization were analyzed retrospectively for indications, graft patency, and neurological outcomes.


The mean age was 12 years (median 11 years, range 4–17 years), and there were 7 boys (41%) and 10 girls (59%). A total of 18 bypasses were performed in 17 patients and included 10 aneurysm cases (55.5%) and 8 tumor cases (45%). Of these 18 bypasses, there were 11 (61.1%) extracranial-intracranial bypasses (10 saphenous vein grafts [90%] and 1 radial artery graft [10%]), 1 side-to-side anastomosis (5.5%), 2 intracranial reimplants (11.1%), and 4 interposition bypass grafts (22.2%; 2 radial artery grafts, 1 saphenous vein graft, and 1 lingual artery graft). The mean clinical follow-up was 40.5 months (median 24 months, range 3–197 months). The mean radiographic follow-up was 40 months (median 15 months, range 9–197 months). Eighty-two percent of patients (14 of 17) achieved a modified Rankin Scale score between 0 and 2; however, 2 patients died of disease progression during long-term follow-up. The short-term (0- to 3-month) graft patency rate was 100%. Two patients had graft stenosis (11.7%) and underwent graft revisions. Two patients (11.1%) with giant middle cerebral artery aneurysms (> 25 mm) had strokes postoperatively but recovered without a persistent neurological deficit. One patient observed for 197 months showed a stable dysplastic change at the end of the graft. The long-term graft patency was 100% with a mean follow-up of 40 months. There were 2 deaths in the cohort during follow-up; both patients died of malignant tumors (osteogenic sarcoma and chondrosarcoma).


The authors conclude that in properly selected cases, bypasses can be safely performed in patients with aneurysms and skull base tumors. The bypasses remained patent over long periods of time despite the growth of the patients.

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William J. Mack, Louis J. Kim, Demetrius K. Lopes and J Mocco

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Louis J. Kim, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Cameron McDougall and Robert F. Spetzler

Recurrent aneurysms of the anterior circulation that are distal to the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) but proximal to the callosomarginal–pericallosal bifurcation can pose a treatment challenge. The authors present one such case, in which the patient was treated with pericallosal artery–pericallosal artery (PerA–PerA) side-to-side bypass, followed by endovascular obliteration of the proximal A2 parent vessel. This patient, in whom an ACoA aneurysm had been treated with clip ligation 5 years previously, presented with a new, mid-A2, right-sided aneurysm with the out-flow artery arising from the dome of the lesion.

The treatment plan included two steps: an interhemispheric transcallosal approach for PerA–PerA side-to-side anastomosis; and endovascular coil embolization of the right A2 branch feeding the aneurysm. Postprocedure angiography demonstrated no ipsilateral aneurysm filling and excellent bilateral distal outflow from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA).

The use of PerA–PerA side-to-side bypass for the treatment of an ACA aneurysm, followed by parent vessel occlusion, offers an elegant solution for the treatment of A2 aneurysms that are not amenable to stand-alone clip ligation or coil occlusion. Such combined methods are invaluable in the management of complex cerebral aneurysms.

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Jonathan S. Hott, Iman Feiz-Erfan, Louis J. Kim, Harold L. Rekate and Volker K. H. Sonntag

✓ Cervical spine injuries in the pediatric population typically affect the upper cervical region. The authors present the first reported case of a subaxial C6–7 unilateral locked facet joint in a neurologically intact 10-month-old infant. To date, this patient's nonoperative treatment has been successful. The proposed biomechanical mechanism of this injury and the treatment paradigm are discussed.

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Michael R. Levitt, Joshua W. Osbun, John D. Nerva and Louis J. Kim

A 71-year-old woman presented with headache and dilated vessels on CTA. Angiography demonstrated a complex dural arteriovenous fistula with retrograde cortical venous hypertension, supplied by branches of internal and external carotids bilaterally into a fistulous pouch paralleling the left transverse and sigmoid sinuses, which was occluded at the jugular bulb. The patient refused treatment and was lost to follow-up, returning with sudden confusion and hemianopsia from left temporo-occipital hemorrhage. Transvenous endovascular embolization was performed using the dual-microcatheter technique with a combination of coiling and Onyx copolymer, completely occluding the sinus and fistula while preserving normal venous drainage.

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Ryan P. Morton, Louis J. Kim and Laligam N. Sekhar

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Louis J. Kim, Harold L. Rekate, Jeffrey D. Klopfenstein and Volker K. H. Sonntag

Object. The reduction of basilar invagination associated with Chiari I malformations in pediatric patients is often possible. Eleven children ranging in age from 1.5 to 17 years underwent a novel treatment method involving decompression, manual reduction, and posterior instrumentation-augmented fusion. Outcomes were evaluated retrospectively.

Methods. After decompression of the lesion, manual craniocervical distraction and extension were performed, followed by posterior occipitocervical fusion involving rigid internal fixation. All patients were symptomatic at presentation. Intraoperative monitoring included somatosensory evoked potentials, fluoroscopy, and direct intradural demonstration of the craniocervical junction. No new neurological deficits occurred immediately after surgery. Perioperatively, symptoms in seven patients improved significantly and in four they remained unchanged. Three patients required subsequent transoral resections. During long-term follow up (mean 39.4 months, range 3–92 months) symptoms improved markedly in nine, remained unchanged in one, and progressively worsened in one patient.

Conclusions. In selected cases, manual cervical distraction and extension, posterior fixation, and fusion appear to provide a safe, effective standalone treatment for basilar invagination associated with Chiari malformation in children.

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Felipe C. Albuquerque, David J. Fiorella, Patrick P. Han, Vivek R. Deshmukh, Louis J. Kim and Cameron G. Mcdougall


Intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms often present with severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and dramatic neurological injury. The authors reviewed the management of 23 cases in an effort to evaluate treatment efficacy and outcomes.


The records of 23 patients who underwent endovascular treatment were reviewed to determine symptoms, type of therapy, complications, and clinical outcomes. All patients were evaluated using records kept in a prospectively maintained database.

Ten men and 13 women (age range 35–72 years; mean age 49 years) were treated over an 8-year period. Twelve patients presented with poor-grade SAH, five with good-grade SAH, three with headache, and two with stroke. The other patient's aneurysm was discovered incidentally. Treatment included coil occlusion of the artery at the aneurysm in 21 patients and stent-assisted coil placement in two. Parent artery sacrifice was successful in all cases, whereas both patients treated with stent-assisted coil insertion suffered recurrences. No patient sustained permanent complications as a result of treatment. Two patients died due to the severity of their original SAH. Findings were normal in 14 patients on follow-up review (including five of the 12 presenting with poor-grade SAH), five had fixed neurological deficits but were able to care for themselves, and one was permanently disabled.


Despite their often aggressive neurological presentation, intracranial VA dissecting aneurysms can be managed safely with coil occlusion of the lesion and/or parent artery. Even patients presenting in poor neurological condition may improve dramatically.

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Isaac Josh Abecassis, John D. Nerva, Jason Barber, Jason Rockhill, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Louis J. Kim and Laligam N. Sekhar


Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are rare in pediatric patients but represent the most common cause of hemorrhagic stroke in this population. Pediatric patients demonstrate superior outcomes in comparison with adult patients with similar lesions and presentations. Most studies of clinical outcomes of pediatric bAVMs use the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), despite a lack of validation in pediatric patients.


The authors interviewed the parents of 26 pediatric patients who underwent multimodality bAVM treatment and administered the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL)—a well-validated tool for pediatric outcomes that quantifies performance in a physical, emotional, social, and school domains. They also reviewed clinical information from the patients' medical charts. Statistical analysis was performed using a log-transformed t-test, the Mann-Whitney exact test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman correlation. In addition, the literature was reviewed for prior reports of clinical outcome of pediatric cases of bAVM.


The average PedsQL health-related quality of life score was 71 ± 24, with an average age at diagnosis of 12.5 years and an average follow-up period of 6.8 years. Seventeen patients (65%) presented with hemorrhage and 4 (15%) with seizures. PedsQL scores correlated strongly and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001) with mRS, Pediatric Overall Performance Category (POPC), Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC), and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores. Multivariate modeling validated special education, corrective devices, and cure status as significant predictors of PedsQL scores. Statistically significant risk factors for undergoing placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt included lower Glasgow Coma Scale motor scores on admission (p = 0.042), cerebellar location (p = 0.046), and nidus volume (p = 0.017). Neither treatment modality nor location statistically affected clinical outcomes at follow-up.


There have been few studies of long-term clinical outcomes of bAVM in pediatric patients, and previously published studies have used conventional metrics that have been validated in the adult population, such as the mRS. Although these metrics can serve as reasonable surrogates, an accurate understanding of overall health-related quality of life is contingent on utilizing validated toolsets, such as the PedsQL.