Ravi Sharma, Manoj Phalak and Varidh Katiyar
Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Aparna S. Kamath, Jean M. Pottinger, Jeremy D. W. Greenlee, Matthew A. Howard III, Joseph E. Cavanaugh and Loreen A. Herwaldt
Many studies that have evaluated surgical site infections (SSIs) after craniotomy or craniectomy (CRANI) did not use robust methods to assess risk factors for SSIs or outcomes associated with SSIs. The authors conducted the current study to identify risk factors for SSIs after CRANI procedures and to evaluate outcomes attributed to SSIs.
The authors performed a nested case-control study of patients undergoing CRANI procedures between 2006 and 2010 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. They identified 104 patients with SSIs and selected 312 controls. They collected data from medical records and used multivariate analyses to identify risk factors and outcomes associated with SSIs.
Thirty-two percent of SSIs were caused by Staphylococcus aureus, 88% were deep incisional or organ space infections, and 70% were identified after discharge. Preoperative length of stay (LOS) ≥ 1 day was the only significant patient-related factor in the preoperative model (OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.2–3.4]) and in the overall model (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.1–3.3]). Procedure-related risk factors that were significant in the overall model included Gliadel wafer use (OR 6.7 [95% CI 2.5–18.2]) and postoperative CSF leak (OR 3.5 [95% CI 1.4–8.5]). The preoperative SSI risk index, including body mass index, previous brain operation, chemotherapy on admission, preoperative LOS, procedure reason, and preoperative glucose level, had better predictive efficacy (c-statistic = 0.664) than the National Healthcare Safety Network risk index (c-statistic = 0.547; p = 0.004). Surgical site infections were associated with increased LOS during the initial hospitalizations (average increase of 50%) or readmissions (average increase of 100%) and with an increased risk of readmissions (OR 7.7 [95% CI 4.0–14.9]), reoperations (OR 36 [95% CI 14.9–87]), and death (OR 3.4 [95% CI 1.5–7.4]).
Surgeons were able to prospectively assess a patient's risk of SSI based on preoperative risk factors and they could modify some processes of care to lower the risk of SSI. Surgical site infections substantially worsened patients' outcomes. Preventing SSIs after CRANI could improve patient outcomes and decrease health care utilization.
Hsiu-yin Chiang, Victoria M. Steelman, Jean M. Pottinger, Annette J. Schlueter, Daniel J. Diekema, Jeremy D.W. Greenlee, Matthew A. Howard III and Loreen A. Herwaldt
The risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after craniotomies or craniectomies in patients in whom contaminated bone flaps have been reimplanted has not been determined. The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of bone flaps with positive cultures—especially those contaminated with Propionibacterium acnes—to assess the risk of SSI after reimplanting (either during the initial operation or subsequently) bone flaps with positive cultures, and to identify risk factors for SSI following the initial craniotomies or craniectomies.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of cases in which patients underwent craniotomy/craniectomy procedures between January and October 2007 in the neurosurgery department at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. They also reviewed processes and procedures and did pulsed field gel electrophoresis of P. acnes isolates to look for a common source of contamination. They then conducted a prospective cohort study that included all patients who underwent craniotomy/craniectomy procedures between November 2007 and November 2008 and met the study criteria. For the cohort study, the authors obtained cultures from each patient's bone flap during the craniotomy/craniectomy procedures. Data about potential risk factors were collected by circulating nurses during the procedures or by a research assistant who reviewed medical records after the procedures. An infection preventionist independently identified SSIs through routine surveillance using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definitions. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between SSI and potential risk factors.
The retrospective review did not identify specific breaks in aseptic technique or a common source of P. acnes. Three hundred seventy-three patients underwent 393 craniotomy/craniectomy procedures during the cohort study period, of which 377 procedures met the study criteria. Fifty percent of the bone flaps were contaminated by microorganisms, primarily skin flora such as P. acnes, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Staphylococcus aureus. Reimplanting bone flaps that had positive culture results did not increase the risk of infection after the initial craniotomy/craniectomy procedures and the subsequent cranioplasty procedures (p = 0.80). Allowing the skin antiseptic to dry before the procedures (p = 0.04, OR 0.26) was associated with lower risk of SSIs. Female sex (p = 0.02, OR = 3.49) was associated with an increased risk of SSIs; Gliadel wafer implants (p = 0.001, OR = 8.38) were associated with an increased risk of SSIs after procedures to treat tumors.
Operative factors such as the way the skin is prepared before the incision rather than the skin flora contaminants on the bone flaps may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SSIs after craniotomy/craniectomy. Gliadel wafers significantly increased the risk of SSI after procedures to treat tumors.
Marc R. Mayberg
Kingsley O. Abode-Iyamah, Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Royce W. Woodroffe, Brian Park, Francis J. Jareczek, Yasunori Nagahama, Nolan Winslow, Loreen A. Herwaldt and Jeremy D. W. Greenlee
Deep brain stimulation is an effective surgical treatment for managing some neurological and psychiatric disorders. Infection related to the deep brain stimulator (DBS) hardware causes significant morbidity: hardware explantation may be required; initial disease symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia may recur; and the medication requirements for adequate disease management may increase. These morbidities are of particular concern given that published DBS-related infection rates have been as high as 23%. To date, however, the key risk factors for and the potential preventive measures against these infections remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, the authors endeavored to identify possible risk factors for DBS-related infection and analyze the efficacy of prophylactic intrawound vancomycin powder (VP).
The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who had undergone primary DBS implantation at a single institution in the period from December 2005 through September 2015 to identify possible risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) and to assess the impact of perioperative (before, during, and after surgery) prophylactic antibiotics on the SSI rate. They also evaluated the effect of a change in the National Healthcare Safety Network’s definition of SSI on the number of infections detected. Statistical analyses were performed using the 2-sample t-test, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, or logistic regression, as appropriate for the variables examined.
Four hundred sixty-four electrodes were placed in 242 adults during 245 primary procedures over approximately 10.5 years; most patients underwent bilateral electrode implantation. Among the 245 procedures, 9 SSIs (3.7%) occurred within 90 days and 16 (6.5%) occurred within 1 year of DBS placement. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common etiological agents. Most patient- and procedure-related characteristics did not differ between those who had acquired an SSI and those who had not. The rate of SSIs among patients who had received intrawound VP was only 3.3% compared with 9.7% among those who had not received topical VP (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.10–1.02, p = 0.04). After controlling for patient sex, the association between VP and decreased SSI risk did not reach the predetermined level of significance (adjusted OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.10–1.03, p = 0.06). The SSI rates were similar after staged and unstaged implantations.
While most patient-related and procedure-related factors assessed in this study were not associated with the risk for an SSI, the data did suggest that intrawound VP may help to reduce the SSI risk after DBS implantation. Furthermore, given the implications of SSI after DBS surgery and the frequency of infections occurring more than 90 days after implantation, continued follow-up for at least 1 year after such a procedure is prudent to establish the true burden of these infections and to properly treat them when they do occur.
Kingsley O. Abode-Iyamah, Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Nolan Winslow, Brian Park, Mario Zanaty, Brian J. Dlouhy, Oliver E. Flouty, Zachary D. Rasmussen, Loreen A. Herwaldt and Jeremy D. Greenlee
Craniectomy is often performed to decrease intracranial pressure following trauma and vascular injuries. The subsequent cranioplasty procedures may be complicated by surgical site infections (SSIs) due to prior trauma, foreign implants, and multiple surgeries through a common incision. Several studies have found that intrawound vancomycin powder (VP) is associated with decreased risk of SSIs after spine operations. However, no previously published study has evaluated the effectiveness of VP in cranioplasty procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intrawound VP is associated with decreased risk of SSIs, to evaluate VP’s safety, and to identify risk factors for SSIs after cranioplasty among patients undergoing first-time cranioplasty.
The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing first-time cranioplasty for indications other than infections from January 1, 2008, to July 31, 2014, at an academic health center. Data on demographics, possible risk factors for SSIs, and treatment with VP were collected from the patients’ electronic health records.
During the study period, 258 patients underwent first-time cranioplasties, and 15 (5.8%) of these patients acquired SSIs. Ninety-two patients (35.7%) received intrawound VP (VP group) and 166 (64.3%) did not (no-VP group). Patients in the VP group and the no-VP group were similar with respect to age, sex, smoking history, body mass index, and SSI rates (VP group 6.5%, no-VP group 5.4%, p = 0.72). Patients in the VP group were less likely than those in the no-VP group to have undergone craniectomy for tumors and were more likely to have an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score > 2. Intrawound VP was not associated with other postoperative complications. Risk factors for SSI from the bivariable analyses were diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 3.65, 95% CI 1.07–12.44), multiple craniotomy procedures before the cranioplasty (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.47–13.18), prior same-side craniotomy (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.57–14.24), and prosthetic implants (OR 4.51, 95% CI 1.40–14.59). The multivariable analysis identified prior same-side craniotomy (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.06–10.79) and prosthetic implants (OR 3.93, 95% CI 1.15–13.40) as significant risk factors for SSIs. After adjusting for potential confounders, patients with SSIs were more likely than those without SSIs to be readmitted (OR 7.28, 95% CI 2.07–25.60).
In this study, intrawound VP was not associated with a decreased risk of SSIs or with an increased risk of complications. Prior same-side craniotomy and prosthetic implants were risk factors for SSI after first-time cranioplasty.