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Yi-Chun Chen, Chiung-Mei Chen, Jun-Liang Liu, Sien-Tsong Chen, Mei-Ling Cheng and Daniel Tsun-yee Chiu

Object

Oxidative stress may play a role in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but data on oxidative burden in cerebral hemorrhage are limited, and it is not clear whether oxidative markers add predictive power regarding ICH outcome beyond that of traditional factors. The authors therefore examined redox status and traditional factors in ICH patients within 3 days of hemorrhage onset to delineate redox status in ICH and investigate the predictive value with respect to 30-day functional outcome.

Methods

Sixty-four patients with ICH and 114 controls were prospectively enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected within 3 days of ICH onset and processed for isolation of plasma, erythrocytes, and leukocytes. The authors evaluated levels or activities of leukocyte 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin E, and vitamin A, as well as traditional factors including the presence of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, total cholesterol level, and measures of liver function. A general linear model and multivariable logistic regression were used for analyses where appropriate.

Results

After adjustment for age and sex and traditional risk factors, ICH was significantly associated with an increased level of 8-OHdG (p < 0.0001), decreased GPx activity (p = 0.0002), and a decreased level of vitamin E (p = 0.003). There was no association of ICH risk with G6PD activity or MDA or vitamin A level. Considering all the oxidative markers and traditional risk factors together, logistic regression showed an independent association of ICH with 8-OHdG (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7–4.2, p < 0.0001). The association between increased 8-OHdG level and lower 30-day Barthel Index was also independent of the effects of age, sex, hemorrhage location and size, and traditional factors (p = 0.026). Unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) at 30 days after ICH onset was not significantly associated with any of the examined oxidative markers.

Conclusions

Increased leukocyte 8-OHdG levels, as well as decreased GPx activity and vitamin E levels, were found during acute ICH. Only 8-OHdG was associated with ICH and the 30-day outcome independently from the other oxidative markers and traditional factors. Leukocyte 8-OHdG may add power beyond the traditional factors in predicting ICH outcome and thus may be used as an independent surrogate for clinical ICH study.

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Lu-Ting Kuo, Chien-Min Chen, Chien-Hsun Li, Jui-Chang Tsai, Hsiu-Chu Chiu, Ling-Chun Liu, Yong-Kwang Tu and Abel Po-Hao Huang

Object

Currently, the effectiveness of minimally invasive evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) utilizing the endoscopic method is uncertain and the technique is considered investigational. The authors analyzed their experience with this method in terms of case selection, surgical technique, and long-term results.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical and radiographic data obtained in 68 patients treated with endoscope-assisted ICH evacuation. Rebleeding, morbidity, and mortality were recorded as primary end points. Hematoma evacuation rate was calculated by comparing the pre- and postoperative CT scans. Glasgow Coma Scale scores and scores on the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) were recorded at the 6-month postoperative follow-up. The technical aspect of this report explains details of the procedure, the instruments that are used, the methods for hemostasis, and the role of hemostatic agents in the management of intraoperative hemorrhage. The pertinent literature was reviewed and summarized.

Results

All surgeries were performed within 12 hours of ictus, and 84% of the surgeries were performed within 4 hours. The mortality rate was 5.9%, and surgery-related morbidity occurred in 3 cases (4.4%). The hematoma evacuation rate was 93% overall—96% in the putaminal group, 86% in the thalamic group, and 98% in the subcortical group. The rebleeding rate was 1.5%. The mean operative time was 85 minutes, and the average blood loss was 56 ml. The mean GOSE score was 4.9 at 6-month follow-up. The authors acknowledge the limitations of these preliminary results in a small number of patients.

Conclusions

The data suggest that early endoscope-assisted ICH evacuation is safe and effective in the management of supratentorial ICH. The rebleeding, morbidity, and mortality rates are low compared with rates reported in the literature for the traditional craniotomy method. This study also showed that early and complete evacuation of ICH may lead to improved outcomes in selected patients. However, the safety and efficacy of endoscope-assisted ICH evacuation should be further investigated in a large, prospective, randomized trial.