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Tianhao Wang, Yongfei Zhao, Yan Liang, Haocong Zhang, Zheng Wang, and Yan Wang

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper was to analyze the incidence and risk factors of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who underwent pedicle subtraction osteotomy.

METHODS

The records of 83 patients with AS and thoracolumbar kyphosis who underwent surgery at the authors’ institution between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of PJK. The radiographic measurements, including proximal junctional angle (PJA), sagittal parameters, and pelvic parameters of these 2 groups, were compared at different time points: before surgery and 2 weeks, 12 months, and 2 years after surgery. Oswestry Disability Index scores were also evaluated.

RESULTS

Overall, 14.5% of patients developed PJK. Before surgery, the mean PJAs in the 2 groups were 13.6° and 8.5°, respectively (p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in age, sex, and body mass index between groups. Patients with PJK had a larger thoracolumbar kyphotic angle (50.8° ± 12.6°) and a greater sagittal vertical axis (21.7 ± 4.3 cm) preoperatively than those without PJK. The proportion of patients with PJK whose fusion extended to the sacrum was 41.2% (7/17), which is significantly greater than the proportion of patients with PJK whose lowest instrumented vertebra was above the sacrum. Oswestry Disability Index scores did not significantly increase in the PJK group compared with the non-PJK group.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that PJK occurs postoperatively in patients with AS with an incidence of 14.5%. Risk factors of PJK include larger preoperative sagittal vertical axis, PJA, and osteotomy angle. Reducing the osteotomy angle in some severe cases and extending fusion to a higher, flatter level would be also beneficial in decreasing the risk of PJK.

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Sinian Wang, Liang Xu, Muyi Wang, Yong Qiu, Zezhang Zhu, Bin Wang, and Xu Sun

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to investigate reversal of vertebral wedging and to evaluate the contribution of vertebral remodeling to correction maintenance in patients with adolescent Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK) after posterior-only instrumented correction.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study of patients with SK was performed. In total, 45 SK patients aged 10–20 years at surgery were included. All patients received at least 24 months of follow-up and had Risser sign greater than grade 4 at latest follow-up. Patients with Risser grade 3 or less at surgery were assigned to the low-Risser group, whereas those with Risser grade 4 or 5 were assigned to the high-Risser group. Radiographic data and patient-reported outcomes were collected preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at latest follow-up and compared between the two groups.

RESULTS

Remarkable postoperative correction of global kyphosis was observed, with similar correction rates between the two groups (p = 0.380). However, correction loss was slightly but significantly less in the low-Risser group during follow-up (p < 0.001). The ratio between anterior vertebral body height (AVBH) and posterior vertebral body height (PVBH) of deformed vertebrae notably increased in SK patients from postoperation to latest follow-up (p < 0.05). Loss of correction of global kyphosis was significantly and negatively correlated with increased AVBH/PVBH ratio. Compared with the high-Risser group, the low-Risser group had significantly greater increase in AVBH/PVBH ratio during follow-up (p < 0.05). The two groups had similar preoperative and postoperative Scoliosis Research Society–22 questionnaire scores for all domains.

CONCLUSIONS

Obvious reversal in wedge deformation of vertebrae was observed in adolescent SK patients. Patients with substantial growth potential had greater vertebral remodeling and less correction loss. Structural remodeling of vertebral bodies has a positive effect and protects against correction loss. These results could be help guide treatment decision-making.

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Da Li, Yu-Ming Jiao, Liang Wang, Fu-Xin Lin, Jun Wu, Xian-Zeng Tong, Shuo Wang, and Yong Cao

OBJECTIVE

Surgical management of brainstem lesions is challenging due to the highly compact, eloquent anatomy of the brainstem. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs).

METHODS

A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed by using stratified blocked randomization. The primary eligibility criterion of the study was being a surgical candidate for brainstem CMs (with informed consent). The study enrolled 23 patients who underwent preoperative DTI/DTT and 24 patients who did not (the control group). The pre- and postoperative muscle strength of both limbs and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were evaluated. Muscle strength of any limb at 12 months after surgery at the clinic visit was the primary outcome; worsened muscle strength was considered to be a poor outcome. Outcome assessors were blinded to patient management. This study reports the preliminary results of the interim analysis.

RESULTS

The cohort included 47 patients (22 women) with a mean age of 35.7 years. The clinical baselines between these 2 groups were not significantly different. In the DTI/DTT group, the corticospinal tract was affected in 17 patients (73.9%): it was displaced, deformed/partially interrupted, or completely interrupted in 6, 7, and 4 patients, respectively. The surgical approach and brainstem entry point were adjusted in 3 patients (13.0%) based on DTI/DTT data. The surgical morbidity of the DTI/DTT group (7/23, 30.4%) was significantly lower than that of the control group (19/24, 79.2%, p = 0.001). At 12 months, the mean mRS score (1.1, p = 0.034) and percentage of patients with worsened motor deficits (4.3%, p = 0.006) were significantly lower in the DTI/DTT group than in the control group (1.7% and 37.5%). Multivariate logistic regression identified the absence of preoperative DTI/DTT (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01–0.73, p = 0.028) and use of the 2-point method (OR 4.15, 95% CI 1.38–12.49, p = 0.011) as independent adverse factors for a worsened motor deficit. The multivariate model found a significant correlation between poor mRS score and both an increased preoperative mRS score (t = 3.559, p = 0.001) and absence of preoperative DTI/DTT (t = −2.747, p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

DTI/DTT noninvasively allowed for visualization of the anatomical relationship between vital tracts and pathologies as well as facilitated the brainstem surgical approach and entry-point decision making. The technique was valuable for complex neurosurgical planning to reduce morbidity. Nonetheless, DTI/DTT data should be interpreted cautiously.

■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: therapeutic; study design: randomized controlled trial; evidence: class I.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01758211 (ClinicalTrials.gov)

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Qing-Song Lin, Wei-Xiong Wang, Yuan-Xiang Lin, Zhang-Ya Lin, Liang-Hong Yu, Yin Kang, and De-Zhi Kang

OBJECTIVE

Glutamate excitotoxicity and neuronal apoptosis are suggested to contribute to early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Annexin A7 (ANXA7) has been shown to regulate glutamate release. However, the role of ANXA7 in early brain injury after SAH has not been illustrated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of ANXA7 knockdown in reducing the severity of early brain injury after SAH, and determine the underlying mechanisms.

METHODS

Endovascular perforation was performed to induce SAH in male Sprague-Dawley rats. ANXA7-siRNA was administered via intraventricular injection 5 days before SAH induction. Neurological test, evaluation of SAH grade, assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, measurement of brain water content, Western blot, double immunofluorescence staining, TUNEL staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed at 24 hours of SAH induction.

RESULTS

ANXA7 protein expression increased significantly after SAH induction and was seen mainly in neurons. High expression of ANXA7 was associated with poor neurological status. ANXA7 knockdown dramatically ameliorated early brain injury through alleviating BBB disruption and brain edema. Further investigation of the mechanism showed that inhibiting ANXA7 expression can rescue neuronal apoptosis. In addition, ANXA7 knockdown also significantly reduced glutamate release, which was consistent with a significant increase of Bcl-2 expression and decreases of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression.

CONCLUSIONS

ANXA7 can induce neuronal apoptosis by affecting glutamate release in rats with SAH. Downregulating the expression of ANXA7 can significantly attenuate early brain injury after SAH. Future therapy targeting ANXA7 may be a promising new choice.

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Wen-Chao Liu, Liang Wen, Tao Xie, Hao Wang, Jiang-Biao Gong, and Xiao-Feng Yang

OBJECTIVE

Erythropoietin (EPO) exerts a neuroprotective effect in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its effectiveness in human patients with TBI is unclear. In this study, the authors conducted the first meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness and safety of EPO in patients with TBI.

METHODS

In December 2015, a systematic search was performed of PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library databases, and Google Scholar. Only English-language publications of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using EPO in patients with TBI were selected for analysis. The assessed outcomes included mortality, favorable neurological outcome, hospital stay, and associated adverse effects. Continuous variables were presented as mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Dichotomous variables were presented as risk ratio (RR) or risk difference (RD) with a 95% CI. Statistical heterogeneity was examined using both I2 and chi-square tests.

RESULTS

Of the 346 studies identified in the search, 5 RCTs involving 915 patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall results demonstrated that EPO significantly reduced mortality (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49–0.96, p = 0.03) and shortened the hospitalization time (MD −7.59, 95% CI −9.71 to −5.46, p < 0.0001) for patients with TBI. Pooled results of favorable outcome (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.88–1.15, p = 0.97) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT; RD 0.00, 95% CI −0.05 to 0.05, p = 1.00) did not show a significant difference.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors suggested that EPO is beneficial for patients with TBI in terms of reducing mortality and shortening hospitalization time without increasing the risk of DVT. However, its effect on improving favorable neurological outcomes did not reach statistical significance. Therefore, more well-designed RCTs are necessary to ascertain the optimum dosage and time window of EPO treatment for patients with TBI.

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Liang Xu, Xu Sun, Muyi Wang, Bo Yang, Changzhi Du, Qingshuang Zhou, Zezhang Zhu, and Yong Qiu

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of coronal imbalance (CI) in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) who underwent growing rod (GR) treatment.

METHODS

A consecutive series of 61 patients with EOS (25 boys and 36 girls, mean age 5.8 ± 1.7 years) who underwent GR treatment was retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative CI was defined as postoperative C7 translation on either side ≥ 20 mm. Patients were divided into an imbalanced and a balanced group. Coronal patterns were classified into three types: type A (C7 translation < 20 mm), type B (C7 translation ≥ 20 mm with C7 plumb line [C7PL] shifted to the concave side of the curve), and type C (C7 translation ≥ 20 mm and a C7PL shifted to the convex side of the curve).

RESULTS

Each patient had an average of 5.3 ± 1.0 lengthening procedures and was followed for an average of 6.2 ± 1.3 years. Eleven patients (18%) were diagnosed with CI at the latest distraction, 5 of whom graduated from GRs and underwent definitive fusion. However, these patients continued to present with CI at the last follow-up evaluation. The proportion of preoperative type C pattern (54.5% vs 16.0%, p = 0.018), immediate postoperative apical vertebral translation (30.4 ± 13.5 mm vs 21.2 ± 11.7 mm, p = 0.025), lowest instrumented vertebra tilt (11.4° ± 8.2° vs 7.3° ± 3.3°, p = 0.008), and spanned obliquity angle (SOA) (9.7° ± 10.5° vs 4.1° ± 4.5°, p = 0.006) values in the imbalanced group were significantly higher than in the balanced group. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that a preoperative type C pattern and immediate postoperative SOA > 11° were independent risk factors for postoperative CI.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of CI in patients with EOS who underwent GR treatment was 18%. This complication could only be slightly improved after definitive spinal fusion because of the autofusion phenomenon. A preoperative type C pattern and immediate postoperative SOA > 11° were found to be the risk factors for CI occurrence at the latest follow-up.

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Liang Xu, Xu Sun, Muyi Wang, Bo Yang, Changzhi Du, Qingshuang Zhou, Zezhang Zhu, and Yong Qiu

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of coronal imbalance (CI) in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) who underwent growing rod (GR) treatment.

METHODS

A consecutive series of 61 patients with EOS (25 boys and 36 girls, mean age 5.8 ± 1.7 years) who underwent GR treatment was retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative CI was defined as postoperative C7 translation on either side ≥ 20 mm. Patients were divided into an imbalanced and a balanced group. Coronal patterns were classified into three types: type A (C7 translation < 20 mm), type B (C7 translation ≥ 20 mm with C7 plumb line [C7PL] shifted to the concave side of the curve), and type C (C7 translation ≥ 20 mm and a C7PL shifted to the convex side of the curve).

RESULTS

Each patient had an average of 5.3 ± 1.0 lengthening procedures and was followed for an average of 6.2 ± 1.3 years. Eleven patients (18%) were diagnosed with CI at the latest distraction, 5 of whom graduated from GRs and underwent definitive fusion. However, these patients continued to present with CI at the last follow-up evaluation. The proportion of preoperative type C pattern (54.5% vs 16.0%, p = 0.018), immediate postoperative apical vertebral translation (30.4 ± 13.5 mm vs 21.2 ± 11.7 mm, p = 0.025), lowest instrumented vertebra tilt (11.4° ± 8.2° vs 7.3° ± 3.3°, p = 0.008), and spanned obliquity angle (SOA) (9.7° ± 10.5° vs 4.1° ± 4.5°, p = 0.006) values in the imbalanced group were significantly higher than in the balanced group. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that a preoperative type C pattern and immediate postoperative SOA > 11° were independent risk factors for postoperative CI.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of CI in patients with EOS who underwent GR treatment was 18%. This complication could only be slightly improved after definitive spinal fusion because of the autofusion phenomenon. A preoperative type C pattern and immediate postoperative SOA > 11° were found to be the risk factors for CI occurrence at the latest follow-up.

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Chang-Hsien Ou, Hao-Kuang Wang, Tzu-Hsien Yang, Cheng-Loong Liang, and Ho-Fai Wong

The authors report an extremely rare case of spinal intraosseous epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with perimedullary vein reflux causing symptoms of myelopathy. The intraosseous fistula tracts were completely obliterated with Onyx embolic agent, resulting in a total resolution of symptoms. The unique features of this case include the rare location of the fistula in the vertebral body and the association of the fistula with a compressive fracture. Imaging studies confirmed these hemodynamic findings and provided clarity and direct evidence regarding the association of epidural AVF formation with the vertebral compressive fracture. The authors also propose a possible disease evolution based on the previously adduced reflux-impending mechanism.

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Ming-liang Yang, Jian-jun Li, Shao-cheng Zhang, Liang-jie Du, Feng Gao, Jun Li, Yu-ming Wang, Hui-ming Gong, and Liang Cheng

The authors report a case of functional improvement of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization using a functional spinal accessory nerve. Complete spinal cord injury at the C-2 level was diagnosed in a 44-year-old man. Left diaphragm activity was decreased, and the right diaphragm was completely paralyzed. When the level of metabolism or activity (for example, fever, sitting, or speech) slightly increased, dyspnea occurred. The patient underwent neurotization of the right phrenic nerve with the trapezius branch of the right spinal accessory nerve at 11 months postinjury. Four weeks after surgery, training of the synchronous activities of the trapezius muscle and inspiration was conducted. Six months after surgery, motion was observed in the previously paralyzed right diaphragm. The lung function evaluation indicated improvements in vital capacity and tidal volume. This patient was able to sit in a wheelchair and conduct outdoor activities without assisted ventilation 12 months after surgery.

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Qiang Zhu, Yuchao Liang, Ziwen Fan, Yukun Liu, Chunyao Zhou, Hong Zhang, Lei He, Tianshi Li, Jianing Yang, Yanpeng Zhou, Jiaxiang Wang, and Lei Wang

OBJECTIVE

Diffuse gliomas are the most common primary gliomas with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to develop and validate prognostic models for predicting the survival probability in newly diagnosed lower-grade glioma (LGG) patients.

METHODS

Detailed data were obtained for newly diagnosed LGG from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) cohorts. Survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for known prognostic factors. The model was established using the TCGA cohort, and independently validated using the CGGA cohort, to predict the 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival probabilities of patients.

RESULTS

Data from 293 patients with newly diagnosed LGG from the TCGA cohort were used to establish a prognostic model, and from 232 patients with primary LGG in the CGGA cohort to validate the model. Age, tumor grade, molecular subtype, tumor resection, and preoperative neurological deficits were included in the prediction model. The Cox regression model had a satisfactory corrected concordance index of 0.8508, 0.8510, and 0.8516 in the internal bootstrap validation at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The calibration plots demonstrated high consistency of the predicted and observed outcomes. The CGGA cohort was used for external validation and showed satisfactory discrimination of 0.7776, 0.7682, and 0.7051 at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The calibration plots demonstrated an acceptable calibration capability in the external validation.

CONCLUSIONS

This study established and validated a prognostic model to predict the survival probability of patients with newly diagnosed LGG. The model performed well in discrimination and calibration with ease of use, speed, accessibility, interpretability, and generalizability. An easily used nomogram based on the Cox model was established for clinical application. Moreover, a free, easy-to-use software interface based on the nomogram is provided online.