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Cheng-Bei Li, Lai-Rong Song, Da Li, Jian-Cong Weng, Li-Wei Zhang, Jun-Ting Zhang and Zhen Wu

OBJECTIVE

The overall survival and pertinent adverse factors for primary intracranial malignant melanoma (PIMM) have not been previously determined. This aim of this study was to determine the rates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) and identify the adverse factors for PIMM.

METHODS

This study included 15 cases from the authors’ own series and 100 cases with detailed clinical data that were obtained from the literature from 1914 to 2018 using the Ovid Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane, and EBSCO databases. Patient demographics, treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy [RT]), PFS, and OS were reviewed. Data from prior publications were processed and used according to PRISMA guidelines.

RESULTS

Diffuse lesions were identified in 24 (20.9%) patients, who had a younger age (p < 0.001). The mean follow-up time was 16.6 months, and 76 (66.1%) deaths occurred. The 6-month, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year OS rates of the whole cohort were 62.8%, 49.9%, 28.9%, and 17.2%, respectively, with an estimated median survival time (EMST) of 12.0 months. The multivariate analysis revealed that gross-total resection (GTR) (HR 0.299, 95% CI 0.180–0.497, p < 0.001), radiotherapy (HR 0.577, 95% CI 0.359–0.929, p = 0.024), and chemotherapy (HR 0.420, 95% CI 0.240–0.735, p = 0.002) predicted a better OS. The EMST was 5.0 months in patients with diffuse-type PIMM and 13.0 months in patients with the solitary type. Patients receiving GTR with adjuvant RT and/or chemotherapy (GTR + [RT and/or chemo]) had significantly higher 1-year and 5-year OS rates (73.0% and 40.1%, respectively) and a longer EMST (53 months) than patients who underwent GTR alone (20.5 months) or RT and/or chemotherapy without GTR (13.0 months).

CONCLUSIONS

Optimal outcomes could be achieved by radical resection plus postoperative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Patients with diffuse PIMM have a more severe clinical spectrum and poorer survival than patients with solitary PIMM. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy show promise as treatment options for PIMM based on results in patients with brain metastases from extracranial melanoma.

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Da Li, Shu-Yu Hao, Zhen Wu, Li-Wei Zhang and Jun-Ting Zhang

Medulla oblongata teratomas are rare. The authors report 2 new cases of teratomas that occurred exclusively in the medulla oblongata. The first case was in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of neck pain and repeated paroxysmal vomiting. Based on preoperative radiographic findings, the initial diagnosis was of an intraaxial medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma. Intraoperatively, the cystic component of the tumor was gray, gelatinous, and soft in consistency. The solid component was light pink, rubbery, and nodular in appearance, with an identifiable boundary. The lesion was completely removed. Histopathological investigation revealed a mature teratoma. Postoperatively, the patient was supported with ventilator assistance and received a tracheotomy, but died of intracranial infection. The second case was in a 10-year-old boy with intermittent headache for 1 month. Radiographs revealed an exophytic cystic and solid lesion with dorsal involvement of the medulla oblongata. The lesion was predominantly solid, pinkish gray, tenacious, and moderately vascularized, with clearly delineated surgical dissection planes. The histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of immature teratoma. Total resection was achieved, followed by postoperative chemotherapy. He was alive without recurrence of the lesion or symptoms at 59 months after surgery.

Resection of medulla oblongata teratoma is challenging, with inherent surgical risks that are contingent on the tumor growth pattern. Teratomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions. Chemotherapy has been suggested for immature teratomas. Long-term follow-up and larger studies of teratomas in unusual locations are required to improve practitioners' understanding of this disease's treatment and outcomes.

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Hui Liu, Zemin Li, Sibei Li, Kuibo Zhang, Hao Yang, Jianru Wang, Xiang Li and Zhaomin Zheng

OBJECT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rod stiffness and implant density on coronal and sagittal plane correction in patients with main thoracic curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study of 77 consecutive cases involving 56 female and 21 male patients with Lenke Type 1 main thoracic curve AIS who underwent single-stage posterior correction and instrumented spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation between July 2009 and July 2012. The patients' mean age at surgery was 15.79 ± 3.21 years. All patients had at least 1 year of follow-up. Radiological parameters in the coronal and sagittal planes, including Cobb angle of the major curve, side-bending Cobb angle of the major curve, thoracic kyphosis (TK), correction rates, and screw density, were measured and analyzed. Screw densities (calculated as number of screws per fusion segment × 2) of < 0.60 and ≥ 0.60 were defined as low and high density, respectively. Titanium rods of 5.5 mm and 6.35 mm diameter were defined as low and high stiffness, respectively. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on the type of rod and density of screw placement that had been used: Group A, low-stiffness rod with low density of screw placement; Group B, low-stiffness rod with high density of screw placement; Group C, high-stiffness rod with low density of screw placement; Group D, high-stiffness rod with high density of screw placement.

RESULTS

The mean coronal correction rate of the major curve, for all 77 patients, was (81.45% ± 7.51%), and no significant difference was found among the 4 groups (p > 0.05). Regarding sagittal plane correction, Group A showed a significant decrease in TK after surgery (p < 0.05), while Group D showed a significant increase (p < 0.05); Group B and C showed no significant postoperative changes in TK (p > 0.05). The TK restoration rate was highest in Group D and lowest in Group A (A, −39.32% ± 7.65%; B, −0.37% ± 8.25%; C, −4.04% ± 6.77%; D, 37.59% ± 8.53%). Screw density on the concave side was significantly higher than that on the convex side in all the groups (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

For flexible main thoracic curve AIS, both rods with high stiffness and those with low stiffness combined with high or low screw density could provide effective correction in the coronal plane; rods with high stiffness along with high screw density on the concave side could provide better outcome with respect to sagittal TK restoration.

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Si Zhang, Hexiang Zhao, Hao Li, Chao You and Xuhui Hui

OBJECTIVE

Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a life-saving treatment for severe hemorrhagic cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). However, the correlations between the clinicoradiological features and surgical outcomes of this disease are not well established. Therefore, the authors endeavored to analyze the potential risk factors for this more severe subtype of CVT and to provide more evidence regarding the benefits of DC in patients with hemorrhagic CVT.

METHODS

The clinical features, radiological findings, and surgical outcomes of patients with severe hemorrhagic CVT who had undergone DC treatment in the period from January 2005 to March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed, and the risk factors for this disease were evaluated.

RESULTS

Fifty-eight patients, 39 females (67.2%) and 19 males (32.8%), with a mean age of 39.7 ± 12.5 years, were included in this study. The mean duration from symptom onset to surgery was 3.3 ± 1.9 days, and 21 patients experienced acute courses. On neuroimaging, the mean mass lesion volume was 114.7 ± 17.7 ml. Nine patients had bilateral lesions, and 7 patients had deep CVT. According to their hemorrhagic proportion, cases were divided into hemorrhage-dominated (27 [46.6%]) and edema-dominated (31 [53.4%]) groups. After 6 months of follow-up, 56.9% of patients had achieved a favorable outcome, and 8 patients had died. The hemorrhage-dominated lesions (p = 0.026) and deep cerebral venous involvement (p = 0.026) were significantly associated with a poor outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients suffering from severe hemorrhagic CVT, DC is an effective life-saving treatment that is associated with favorable outcomes. Hemorrhage-dominated lesions and deep cerebral venous involvement have a significant impact on the outcome of this disease.

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Lei Zhang, Zhiqiang Yi, Hongzhou Duan and Liang Li

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel autologous duraplasty procedure for the treatment of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed data from patients who had been diagnosed with CM-I and had undergone suboccipital decompression and autologous duraplasty in situ or synthetic dural graft duraplasty; patients were treated in the authors' department between 2011 and 2014. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The 2 duraplasty methods were compared in terms of surgical factors and complications. The authors assessed the neurological outcome and MRI-documented syrinx size at the 6-month follow-up visit.

RESULTS

Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in this study, 13 in the duraplasty in situ group and 14 in the synthetic dural graft duraplasty group. The results showed no significant differences between the duraplasty in situ and synthetic dural graft duraplasty groups in overall operative time (4.9 hours vs 4.1 hours; p = 0.070), estimated blood loss (229 ml vs 254 ml; p = 0.159), and duration of hospital stay after the operation (13.5 days vs 12.8 days; p = 0.808). In the duraplasty in situ group, 1 case of meningitis occurred (7.7%). In the synthetic dural graft duraplasty group, the complications included 1 case of meningitis (7.1%) and 1 CSF leak (7.1%). The mean cost of hospitalization in the duraplasty in situ group (CNY 23,354) was significantly lower than that in the synthetic dural graft duraplasty group (CNY 29,385; p = 0.036).

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with synthetic dural graft duraplasty, autologous duraplasty in situ is a safe, effective, and cost-effective procedure for the treatment of CM-I. The long-term outcome of this procedure requires investigation.

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Peng Li, Haibo Ren, Shizhen Zhang and Wei Wang

Object

The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the efficacy and safety of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for the treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs). The authors report on 16 patients who underwent GKS as a primary or adjuvant treatment for CSH.

Methods

Sixteen patients harboring CSHs (14 women and 2 men ranging in age from 21 to 65 years [mean 41.3 years]) underwent GKS at West China Hospital. In 4 patients the diagnosis was based on histological findings; in the other 12 patients it was based on findings on MR images. After patients were given a local anesthetic agent, the treatments were performed using a Leksell Gamma Knife model C. Gadolinium-enhanced MR images of T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR sequences were obtained to determine the pretreatment location of the lesion. A mean peripheral dose of 13.3 Gy (range 11–14 Gy) was directed to the 40%–50% isodose line.

Results

The mean follow-up time in this study was 21.5 months (range 12–36 months). In 11 of 12 patients with symptoms, clinical improvement was reported at an average of 3.3 months (range 1–8 months) after GKS. Significant or partial tumor shrinkage was observed in 14 patients (87.5%) at the last follow-up. No new neurological impairments were reported after GKS.

Conclusions

Magnetic resonance imaging may play an important role in the preoperative diagnosis of CSHs. Gamma Knife surgery may be a safe and effective primary or adjuvant treatment option for CSHs; however, long-term follow-up with more cases is needed to verify the benefits of this treatment.

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Xiaowei Li, Zhaosheng Sun, Wangmiao Zhao, Jinrong Zhang, Jianchao Chen, Yongqian Li, Yanqiao Ye, Jinlian Zhao, Xuehui Yang, Yi Xiang, Guangjie Li, Jianhui Mao, Wenchao Zhang, Mingzhe Zhang and Wanzeng Zhang

Object

The authors evaluated the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) usage and transfusion of previously frozen apheresis platelets on postoperative hemorrhage, activities of daily living (ADL) score, and mortality rate in patients with acute hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage undergoing craniotomy.

Methods

This was a prospective, double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial in patients with acute hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage, who had either not received ASA therapy (control) or received ASA therapy. The patients who received ASA therapy were divided according to the results of a platelet aggregation test into ASA-resistant, ASA-semiresponsive, and ASA-sensitive groups. All patients required an emergency craniotomy for hematoma removal after hospitalization. The patients who were sensitive to ASA were randomized to receive one of the following transfusion regimens of previously frozen apheresis platelets: no transfusion, 1 therapeutic dose before surgery, or 2 therapeutic doses (1 before surgery and 1 after 24 hours of hospitalization). The postoperative hemorrhage rate and the average postoperative hemorrhage volume were recorded and the ADL scores and mortality rate were measured during a 6-month follow-up period.

Results

The rate of postoperative hemorrhage, average postoperative hemorrhage volume, and mortality rate were significantly higher in the ASA-sensitive patients who received ASA therapy compared with patients who did not receive ASA therapy (all p < 0.005). The ADL scores were grouped into different grades and the number of cases in the lower grades was higher and the overall scores were poorer in patients who received ASA therapy compared with those who did not (all p < 0.005). After transfusion of previously frozen apheresis platelets, the postoperative hemorrhage rate, average postoperative hemorrhage volume, and mortality rate of the ASA-sensitive patients were significantly lowered (all p < 0.005), and the ADL scores and their classification level were better than those of patients who did not undergo transfusion (all p < 0.005).

Conclusions

Transfusion of previously frozen apheresis platelets reduces the rate of postoperative hemorrhage, average postoperative hemorrhage volume, disability rate, and mortality rate in ASA-sensitive patients with acute hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage undergoing craniotomy.

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Hongzhou Duan, Dapeng Mo, Yang Zhang, Jiayong Zhang and Liang Li

OBJECTIVE

Symptomatic steno-occlusion of the proximal vertebral artery (VA) or subclavian artery (ScA) heralds a poor prognosis and high risk of stroke recurrence despite medical therapy, including antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. In some cases, the V2 segment of the cervical VA is patent and perfused via collateral vessels. The authors describe 7 patients who were successfully treated by external carotid artery (ECA)–saphenous vein (SV)–VA bypass.

METHODS

Seven cases involving symptomatic patients were retrospectively studied: 3 cases of V1 segment occlusion, 2 cases of severe in-stent restenosis in the V1 segment, and 2 cases of occlusion of the proximal ScA. All patients underwent ECA-SV-VA bypass. The ECA was isolated and retracted, and the anterior wall of the transverse foramen was unroofed. The VA was exposed, and then the 2 ends of the SV were anastomosed to the VA and ECA in an end-to-side fashion.

RESULTS

Surgical procedures were all performed as planned, with no intraoperative complications. There were 2 postoperative complications (severe laryngeal edema in one case and shoulder weakness in another), but both patients recovered fully and measures were taken to minimize laryngeal edema and its effects in subsequent cases. All patients experienced improvement of their symptoms. No new neurological deficits were reported. Postoperative angiography demonstrated that the anastomoses were all patent, and analysis of follow-up data (range of follow-up 12–78 months) revealed no further ischemic events in the vertebrobasilar territory.

CONCLUSIONS

The ECA-SV-VA bypass is a useful treatment for patients who suffer medically refractory ischemic events in the vertebrobasilar territory when the proximal part of the VA or ScA is severely stenosed or occluded but the V2 segment of the cervical VA is patent.

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Qian-Nan Wang, Xiang-Yang Bao, Yong Zhang, Qian Zhang, De-Sheng Li and Lian Duan

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to investigate long-term outcomes after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) for the treatment of hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (MMD) and identify the risk factors for recurrent hemorrhages.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed 95 patients with hemorrhagic MMD who were treated with EDAS at 307th Hospital PLA. Clinical features, angiographic findings, and clinical outcomes were investigated. Rebleeding incidences were compared between anterior or posterior hemorrhagic sites. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate rebleeding risks after EDAS.

RESULTS

The average age at symptom onset was 37.1 years (range 20–54 years) for adult patients. The ratio of female to male patients was 1.16:1. In 61 of 95 hemorrhagic hemispheres (64.2%), the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) or posterior communicating artery (PCoA) was extremely dilated, with extensive branches beyond the choroidal fissure, which only occurred in 28 of 86 nonhemorrhagic hemispheres (32.6%). Fifty-seven incidences were classified as anterior hemorrhages and 38 as posterior. Sixteen of 95 patients (16.8%) suffered cerebral rebleeding after a median follow-up duration of 8.5 years. The annual rebleeding rate was 2.2% per person per year. The incidence rate was higher for the posterior group than for the anterior group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that the age of symptom onset (OR 1.075, 95% CI 1.008–1.147, p = 0.028) was a predictor of rebleeding strokes.

CONCLUSIONS

Through long-term follow up, EDAS proved beneficial for patients with hemorrhagic MMD. Dilation of the AChA-PCoA is associated with the initial hemorrhage of MMD, and rebleeding is age-related. Patients with hemorrhagic MMD should undergo follow-up over the course of their lives, even when neurological status is excellent.

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Dong Liu, Yanhe Li, Yipei Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhang, Guoxiang Song and Desheng Xu

OBJECTIVE

This article is a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in the treatment of patients with orbital venous malformations (OVMs).

METHODS

Twenty patients with moderate to large OVMs were treated with volume-staged GKRS between March 2005 and October 2015. The series included 8 male and 12 female patients with an average age of 22.5 years (range 9–45 years). The diagnoses were confirmed intraoperatively and at pathological examination in 14 cases and presumed in accordance with clinical and imaging findings in 6 cases. The median OVM volume was 12.2 cm3 (range 7.1–34.6 cm3). The median interval between stages was 10 months (range 6–12 months). The tumor margin dose for each stage ranged from 11.0 to 13.5 Gy. The median duration of follow-up was 45.5 months (range 18–98 months).

RESULTS

Periodically scheduled MRI studies demonstrated evidence of a significant reduction of the original OVM volume in all cases. Visual acuity (VA) was preserved in 18 cases (90%). Five patients (25%) experienced vision improvement of varying degrees, and 13 (65%) experienced long-term preservation of VA at their pre-GKRS level. Deterioration in VA was observed in only 2 cases (10%). MRI demonstrated OVM regression after treatment in all cases, and all patients were found to have reduction of exophthalmos after volume-staged GKRS. Follow-up MRI revealed recurrence in only 1 case (5%). Three patients (15%) developed transient conjunctival edema.

CONCLUSIONS

This retrospective investigation indicates that volume-staged GKRS provides an effective management option in selected patients with OVMs, providing excellent visual outcomes. The study adds substantial support for volume-staged GKRS as a major treatment for OVMs.