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Zhiyu Zhang, Yingqi Hua, Guodong Li, Wei Sun, Shuo Hu, Jian Li and Zhengdong Cai

Object

The authors propose a new surgical classification method for sacral tumors that improves the guidance for specific surgical decisions and approaches.

Methods

The authors retrospectively studied the clinical courses of 92 patients with sacral tumors treated at the Changhai Hospital; all patients underwent tumor resection between January 2000 and August 2005. The clinical characteristics, imaging features, and pathological classifications were carefully assessed in each case. The tumors were classified according to the imaging features and intraoperative findings. The surgical approach and the resection area were determined according to the tumor classification.

Results

The proposed surgical classification system divided the sacral tumors into 2 major types according to the lesion's anatomical position in the sagittal plane. The tumors were further divided into 4 subtypes according to the length of the tumor's anterior protrusion into the pelvic cavity. Finally, each tumor subtype was classified into 16 areas according to the anatomical position in the cross-sectional plane. This classification method was used to categorize the sacral tumors, all of which were totally resected under the naked eye. Postoperatively symptoms were improved to varying degrees.

Conclusions

The appropriate classification of sacral tumors and the selection of a corresponding surgical approach can improve the rate of total resection and the surgical safety, as well as decrease the recurrence rate.

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Jianguo Xu, Chao You, Sizhong Zhang, Siqing Huang, Bowen Cai, Zhenggui Wu and Hao Li

Object

Craniopharyngioma is one of the most common congenital tumors of the sellar and suprasellar regions and accounts for between 4 and 6% of all intracranial tumors. Its oncogenesis and biological behavior have not been well studied, and neither a cell line nor an animal model have been established. To better understand the tumor and improve its clinical management, the authors investigated the angiogenesis and cellular proliferation in subcutaneous craniopharyngioma xenografts obtained by implanting human tumor cells into athymic nude mice.

Methods

Human craniopharyngioma cells obtained from surgical specimens were subcutaneously implanted into BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice to establish a preliminary animal model of a transplanted tumor. Immunohistochemical staining with streptavidin–peroxidase complex was used to identify the cell phenotype and to evaluate the angiogenesis and proliferation in the xenografts. Expression of cytokeratin, minichromosome maintenance deficient 6 (MCM6) protein, and endothelial cell marker CD34 on the xenograft sections were assayed quantitatively by computer-assisted microscopy.

Twenty-seven surviving subcutaneous xenografts were obtained in 15 nude mice. The total implantation success rate was 28.12% (adamantine epithelioma [AE], 37.50%; squamous papillary tumor [SPT], 18.75%). Formation of capillaries and cell proliferation were observed in all of these xenografts. Microvessel density and degree of MCM6 immunostaining were positively correlated in the surviving grafts (r = 0.410, p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in these variables between the AE and SPT groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusions

A preliminary animal model of human craniopharyngioma was established in the nude mouse by heterotopic implantation. Surviving xenografts maintained their vascularization and proliferation activities until harvesting at 12 weeks.

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Yongxu Wei, Wenlei Yang, Weiguo Zhao, Chunhua Pu, Ning Li, Yu Cai and Hanbing Shang

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether intraoperative monitoring of lateral spread response (LSR) improves the efficacy of microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS).

METHODS

In this prospective study, patients undergoing MVD for HFS were assigned to one of 2 groups, Group A (MVD with intraoperative LSR monitoring) or Group B (MVD without LSR monitoring). Clinical outcome at 12 months after surgery was assessed through telephone survey. Data analysis was performed to investigate the effect of intraoperative LSR monitoring on efficacy of MVD.

RESULTS

A total of 283 patients were enrolled in the study, 145 in Group A and 138 in Group B. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to the percentage of patients who had spasm relief at either 1 week (Group A 87.59% vs Group B 83.33%; p = 0.317) or 1 year (93.1% vs 94.2%; p = 0.809) after surgery. A clear-cut elimination of LSR during surgery was observed in 131 (90.34%) of 145 patients; LSR persisted in 14 patients (9.66%) at the end of the surgical procedure. Disappearance of LSR correlated with spasm-free status at 1 week postoperatively (p = 0.017) but not at 1 year postoperatively (p = 0.249).

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative LSR monitoring does not appear to provide significant benefit with respect to the outcome of MVD for HFS in skilled hands. Persistence of LSR does not always correlate with poor outcome, and LSR elimination should not be pursued in all patients after verification of complete decompression.

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Yi Ma, Yan-feng Li, Quan-cai Wang, Bin Wang and Hai-tao Huang

OBJECT

The object of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term follow-up results of glossopharyngeal nerve rhizotomy (GPNR) with or without partial vagus nerve rhizotomy (VNR) for treating glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN).

METHODS

A retrospective review of the case notes of patients who had undergone surgery for GPN in the authors’ department between 2008 and 2013 was performed to investigate baseline characteristics and immediate outcomes during the hospitalization. For the long-term results, a telephone survey was performed, and information on pain recurrence and permanent complications was collected. Pain relief meant no pain or medication, any pain persisting after surgery was considered to be treatment failure, and any pain returning during the follow-up period was considered to be pain recurrence. For comparative study, the patients were divided into 2 cohorts, that is, patients treated with GPNR alone and those treated with GPNR+VNR.

RESULTS

One hundred three procedures, consisting of GPNR alone in 38 cases and GPNR+VNR in 65 cases, were performed in 103 consecutive patients with GPN. Seventy-nine of the 103 patients could be contacted for the follow-up study, with a mean follow-up duration of 2.73 years (range 1 month–5.75 years). While there were similar results (GPNR vs GPNR+VNR) in immediate pain relief rates (94.7% vs 93.8%), immediate complication rates (7.9% vs 4.6%), and long-term pain relief rates (92.3% vs 94.3%) between the 2 cohorts, a great difference was seen in long-term complications (3.8% vs 35.8%). The long-term complication rate for the combined GPNR+VNR cohort was 9.4 times higher than that in the GPNR cohort.

There was no operative or perioperative mortality. Immediate complications occurred in 6 cases, consisting of poor wound healing in 3 cases, and CSF leakage, hoarseness, and dystaxia in 1 case each. Permanent complications occurred in 20 patients (25.3%) and included cough while drinking in 10 patients, pharyngeal discomfort in 8 patients, and hoarseness and dysphagia in 1 case each.

CONCLUSIONS

In general, this study indicates that GPNR alone or in combination with VNR is a safe, simple, and effective treatment option for GPN. It may be especially valuable for patients who are not suitable for the microvascular decompression (MVD) procedure and for surgeons who have little experience with MVD. Of note, this study renews the significance of GPNR alone, which, the authors believe, is at least valuable for a subgroup of GPN patients, with significantly fewer long-term complications than those for rhizotomy for both glossopharyngeal nerve and rootlets of the vagus nerve.

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Wen Cheng, Mingyang Li, Yang Jiang, Chuanbao Zhang, Jinquan Cai, Kuanyu Wang and Anhua Wu

OBJECT

This study investigated the role and prognostic value of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in glioma.

METHODS

Data from 3 large databases of glioma samples (Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data, and GSE16011), which contained whole-genome messenger RNA microarray expression data and patients’ clinical data, were analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to validate protein expression in another set of 50 glioma specimens.

RESULTS

Of 28 HSPs, 11 were overexpressed in high-grade glioma (HGG) compared with low-grade glioma. A univariate Cox analysis revealed that HSPB11 has significant prognostic value for each glioma grade, which was validated by a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. HSPB11 expression was associated with poor prognosis and was independently correlated with overall survival (OS) in HGG. This study further explored the combined role of HSPB11 and other molecular markers in HGG, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status. HSPB11 expression was able to refine the prognostic value of IDH1 mutation in patients with HGG. However, when combined with MGMT promoter methylation status, among patients with a methylated MGMT promoter, those with lower levels of HSPB11 expression had longer OS and progression-free survival than patients with higher levels of HSPB11 expression or with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Moreover, within the MGMT promoter methylation group, patients with low levels of HSPB11 expression were more sensitive to combined radiochemotherapy than those with high levels of HSPB11 expression, which may explain why some patients with HGG with a methylated MGMT promoter show tolerance to radiochemotherapy.

CONCLUSIONS

HSPB11 was identified as a novel prognostic marker in patients with HGG. Together with MGMT promoter methylation status, HSPB11 expression can predict outcome for patients with HGG and identify those who would most benefit from combined radiochemotherapy.

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Li Pan, Nan Zhang, En Ming Wang, Bin Jiang Wang, Jia Zhong Dai and Pei Wu Cai

Object. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) in controlling tumor growth and endocrinopathy associated with prolactinomas.

Methods. Between 1993 and 1997, 164 of 469 patients with pituitary adenomas treated by GKS harbored prolactinomas. The dose to the tumor margin ranged from 9 to 35 Gy (mean 31.2 Gy), and the visual pathways were exposed to a dose of less than 10 Gy. The mean tumor diameter was 13.4 mm. The mean follow-up time for 128 cases was 33.2 months (range 6–72 months). Tumor control was observed in all but two patients who underwent surgery 18 and 36 months, respectively, after GKS. Clinical cure was achieved in 67 cases.

Clinical improvement was noted with a decrease in the hyperprolactinemia after GKS. Nonetheless, in 31 (29%) of 108 patients who were followed for more than 2 years no improvement in serum prolactin levels was demonstrated, although this could be normalized by bromocriptine administration after treatment. Nine infertile women became pregnant 2 to 13 months after GKS and all gave birth to normal children.

There was no visual deterioration related to GKS. Five women experienced premature menopause. In these patients there was subtotal disappearance of the tumor and an empty sella developed.

Conclusions. Gamma knife radiosurgery as a primary treatment for prolactinomas can be safe and effective both for controlling tumor growth and for normalization of prolactin hypersecretion. A higher margin dose (≥ 30 Gy) seemed to be associated with a better clinical outcome. Gamma knife radiosurgery may make prolactinomas more sensitive to the bromocriptine.

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Nan Zhang, Li Pan, En Min Wang, Jia Zhong Dai, Bin Jiang Wang and Pei Wu Cai

Object. The authors sought to evaluate the effect of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) on growth hormone (GH)—producing pituitary adenoma growth and endocrinological response.

Methods. From 1993 to 1997, 79 patients with GH-producing pituitary adenomas were treated with GKS. Seventysix patients had acromegaly. Sixty-eight patients were treated with GKS as the primary procedure. The tumor margin was covered with a 50 to 90% isodose and the margin dose was 18 to 35 Gy (mean 31.3 Gy). The dose to the visual pathways was less than 10 Gy except in one case. Sixty-eight patients (86%) were followed for 6 to 52 months. Growth hormone levels declined with improvement in acromegaly in all cases in the first 6 months after GKS. Normalization of the hormone levels was achieved in 23 (40%) of 58 patients who had been followed for 12 months and in 96% of cases for more than 24 months (43 of 45), or more than 36 months (25 of 26), respectively. With the reduction of GH hormone levels, 12 of 21 patients with hyperglycemia regained a normal blood glucose level (p < 0.001). The tumor shrank in 30 (52%) of 58 patients who had been followed for 12 months (p < 0.01), 39 (87%) of 45 patients for more than 2 years (p = 0.02), and 24 (92%) of 26 patients for more than 36 months. In the remainder of patients tumor growth ceased.

Conclusions. Gamma knife radiosurgery for GH-producing adenomas showed promising results both in hormonal control and tumor shrinkage. A margin dose of more than 30 Gy would seem to be effective in improving the clinical status, reducing high blood glucose levels, and normalizing hypertension.

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Nan Zhang, Li Pan, Bin Jiang Wang, En Min Wang, Jia Zhong Dai and Pei Wu Cai

Object. The authors analyzed the outcome of 53 patients with cavernous hemangiomas who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) and evaluated the benefit of the treatment.

Methods. From 1994 to 1995, 57 patients were treated with GKS for cavernous hemangiomas. The mean margin dose to the lesions was 20.3 Gy (range 14.5–25.2 Gy) and the prescription isodose was 50 to 80%. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years. Four patients were lost to follow up. In 18 of 28 patients whose chief complaint was seizures, there was a decrease in seizure frequency. Five of 23 patients with hemorrhage suffered rebleeding 4 to 39 months after GKS. Seventeen patients in whom the hemangiomas were located at the frontal or parietal lobe had neurological disability and in five this was severe. Two patients underwent resection of their hemangioma after GKS. Three experienced visual problems. Follow-up imaging demonstrated shrinkage of the lesion in 19 patients.

Conclusions. A higher margin dose (> 16 Gy) may be associated with a reduction in the incidence of rebleeding after GKS. Higher dosage and severe brain edema after GKS may decrease the frequency and intensity of seizures at least temporarily. Gamma knife radiosurgery may play a role in protection against hemorrhage and in reduction of the rate of seizure in selected cases with the appropriate dose.

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Quan Wan, Daying Zhang, Shun Li, Wenlong Liu, Xiang Wu, Zhongwei Ji, Bin Ru and Wenjun Cai

The authors describe the outcomes of 25 patients, the procedure's surgical steps, and the potential advantages of using the posterior percutaneous full-endoscopic cervical discectomy under local anesthesia. They believe this technique may be a new alternative in the treatment of selected patients with cervical radiculopathy due to soft-disc herniation.

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Long Wang, Shuaibin Lu, Li Cai, Hai Qian, Rokuya Tanikawa and Xiang’en Shi

OBJECTIVE

The rapid innovation of the endovascular armamentarium results in a decreased number of indications for a classic surgical approach. However, a middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm remains the best example of one for which results have favored microsurgery over endovascular intervention. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the experience and efficacy regarding surgical outcomes after applying internal maxillary artery (IMA) bypass for complex MCA aneurysms (CMCAAs).

METHODS

All IMA bypasses performed between January 2010 and July 2018 in a single-center, single-surgeon practice were screened.

RESULTS

In total, 12 patients (9 males, 3 females) with CMCAAs managed by high-flow IMA bypass were identified. The mean size of CMCAAs was 23.7 mm (range 10–37 mm), and the patients had a mean age of 31.7 years (range 14–56 years). The aneurysms were proximally occluded in 8 cases, completely trapped in 3 cases, and completely resected in 1 case. The radial artery was used as the graft vessel in all cases. At discharge, the graft patency rate was 83.3% (n = 10), and all aneurysms were completely eliminated (83.3%, n = 10) or greatly diminished (16.7%, n = 2) from the circulation. Postoperative ischemia was detected in 2 patients as a result of graft occlusion, and 1 patient presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage achieved improved modified Rankin Scale scores compared to the preoperative status but retained some neurological deficits. Therefore, neurological assessment at discharge showed that 9 of the 12 patients experienced unremarkable outcomes. The mean interval time from bypass to angiographic and clinical follow-up was 28.7 months (range 2–74 months) and 53.1 months (range 19–82 months), respectively. Although 2 grafts remained occluded, all aneurysms were isolated from the circulation, and no patient had an unfavorable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

The satisfactory result in the present study demonstrated that IMA bypass is a promising method for the treatment of CMCAAs and should be maintained in the neurosurgical armamentarium. However, cases with intraoperative radical resection or inappropriate bypass recipient selection such as aneurysmal wall should be meticulously chosen with respect to the subtype of MCA aneurysm.