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Lei Liu, Tao Sui, Xin Hong, Xiaotao Wu, and Xiaojian Cao

Object

The authors conducted a study to evaluate the effects and the safety of locally applied mitomycin C (MMC) on epidural fibrosis after microendoscopic discectomy (MED).

Methods

Seventy-five patients undergoing single-level unilateral MED for lumbar disc herniation were randomly assigned to receive cotton wool impregnated with either 0.5 mg/ml MMC or saline applied at the site of discectomy for 5 minutes. Outcome measures included degrees of pain severity, functional disability, physical symptoms, and quantitative evaluation of postoperative epidural fibrosis shown on follow-up lumbar contrast-enhanced MRI.

Results

Sixty-two patients completed the follow-up. Neither serious drug adverse effects nor clinically significant laboratory adverse effects were observed. Patients in both groups showed similar clinical recoveries postoperatively. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the 2 treatments was shown in a quantitative evaluation of postoperative MRI-documented epidural fibrosis in the MMC group and the saline group using a modified grading system. The mean cross-sectional areas of epidural fibrosis were 7.32–70.06 mm2 in the MMC group and 22.94–90.48 mm2 in the saline group. The epidural fibrosis index ranged from 0.0296 to 0.3267 in the MMC group and from 0.1191 to 0.3483 in the saline group. A significant difference was also observed using the Ross grading system to evaluate postoperative MR images.

Conclusions

Although no benefit was observed clinically, the authors observed a notable reduction of epidural fibrosis after MED radiologically, with 0.5 mg/ml MMC locally applied and no clinical side effects. Clinical trial registration no.: ChiCTR-TRC-10001079 (http://www.chictr.org/cn/proj/show.aspx?proj=326).

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Song-Bai Gui, Sheng-Yuan Yu, Lei Cao, Ji-wei Bai, Xin-Sheng Wang, Chu-Zhong Li, and Ya-Zhuo Zhang

OBJECTIVE

At present, endoscopic treatment is advised as the first procedure in cases of suprasellar arachnoid cysts (SSCs) with hydrocephalus. However, the appropriate therapy for SSCs without hydrocephalus has not been fully determined yet because such cases are very rare and because it is usually difficult to perform the neuroendoscopic procedure in patients without ventriculomegaly given difficulties with ventricular cannulation and the narrow foramen of Monro. The purpose of this study was to find out the value of navigation-guided neuroendoscopic ventriculocystocisternostomy (VCC) for SSCs without lateral ventriculomegaly.

METHODS

Five consecutive patients with SSC without hydrocephalus were surgically treated using endoscopic fenestration (VCC) guided by navigation between March 2014 and November 2015. The surgical technique, success rate, and patient outcomes were assessed and compared with those from hydrocephalic patients managed in a similar fashion.

RESULTS

The small ventricles were successfully cannulated using navigational tracking, and the VCC was accomplished in all patients. There were no operative complications related to the endoscopic procedure. In all patients the SSC decreased in size and symptoms improved postoperatively (mean follow-up 10.4 months).

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic VCC can be performed as an effective, safe, and simple treatment option by using intraoperative image-based neuronavigation in SSC patients without hydrocephalus. The image-guided neuroendoscopic procedure improved the accuracy of the endoscopic approach and minimized brain trauma. The absence of hydrocephalus in patients with SSC may not be a contraindication to endoscopic treatment.

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Ning Qiao, Xiaocui Yang, Chuzhong Li, Guofo Ma, Jie Kang, Chunhui Liu, Lei Cao, Yazhuo Zhang, and Songbai Gui

OBJECTIVE

Due to the proximity of craniopharyngioma to the optic apparatus, one of the most common complications after surgery is visual deterioration. Intraoperative visual evoked potential (VEP), as a means of real-time visual function monitoring, has been integrated into transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma to predict postoperative visual outcome. Compared with pituitary tumor, craniopharyngioma often adheres to optic nerves, with increased risk of postoperative visual impairment. Furthermore, extended endoscopic endonasal surgery (EEES) can provide direct visualization of the surgical plane between the craniopharyngioma and the optic nerves, which contributes to analysis of the mechanism of real-time VEP changes during surgery. Therefore, VEP monitoring applied during EEES for craniopharyngioma may have more clinical value. However, only 9 patients who underwent EEES with VEP monitoring for craniopharyngioma have been sporadically reported to date. In this paper, the authors present the largest series to date analyzing the clinical value of VEP to predict postoperative visual outcome in adult patients with craniopharyngioma.

METHODS

Sixty-five adult patients who underwent EEES with intraoperative VEP monitoring for primary craniopharyngioma were retrospectively reviewed. The association between changes in VEP amplitude and postoperative visual outcome was determined. In addition, other potential prognostic factors with regard to postoperative visual outcomes were included in the analysis.

RESULTS

Gross-total resection was achieved in 59 patients (90.8%). Reproducible and stable VEP was recorded in 128 of 130 eyes (98.5%). During surgery, VEP remained stable in 108 eyes, 10 (9.3%) of which had new visual acuity (VA) and/or visual field (VF) defects after surgery. Transient VEP decrease was recorded in 15 eyes, 4 (26.7%) of which had visual deterioration. Of the 5 eyes with permanent VEP decrease, 3 (60%) experienced postoperative visual impairment. Permanent VEP decrease (OR 19.868, p = 0.007) and tight adhesion (OR 6.104, p = 0.040) were independent adverse factors for postoperative VA deterioration. Tight adhesion (OR 7.150, p = 0.002) and larger tumor volume (OR 1.066, p = 0.001) were significant risk factors for postoperative VF defects.

CONCLUSIONS

Intraoperative VEP monitoring can serve as a real-time warning to guide surgeons to avoid postoperative visual impairment. It effectively predicted VA changes in adult patients with craniopharyngioma after EEES. Tight adhesion and larger tumor volume were also strong predictors of postoperative visual impairment.

Free access

Mijin Kim and Chang-Hyun Lee

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Yu Sun, Li-Xin Wang, Lei Wang, Si-Xin Sun, Xiao-Jian Cao, Peng Wang, and Li Feng

Object

The effectiveness of the topical application of mitomycin C (MMC) or 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in preventing peridural adhesion after laminectomy was compared in this study.

Methods

Laminectomies were performed at L-1 in 30 rats. Cotton pads soaked with 0.1 mg/ml MMC, 25 mg/ml 5FU, or 9 mg/ml saline (control) were applied to the operative sites. To evaluate neurological deficits pre- and postoperatively, somatosensory evoked potentials were monitored and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotion test was performed. Four weeks postlaminectomy the rats were killed, and peridural scar adhesion was evaluated histologically. The level of hydroxyproline, the area of peridural scar tissue, and the number of fibroblasts were determined. The degree of peridural adhesion was classified according to the Rydell standard.

Results

No obvious adhesion formed in the rats in the MMC group, but severe peridural adhesions were found in those in the 5FU and control groups. The content of hydroxyproline, the area of peridural scar tissue, and the number of fibroblasts in the MMC group were significantly lower than those in the 5FU and control groups.

Conclusions

The topical application of MMC rather than 5FU may be a successful method of preventing post-laminectomy peridural adhesions.

Free access

Peigen Xie, Feng Feng, Junyan Cao, Zihao Chen, Bingjun He, Zhuang Kang, Lei He, Wenbin Wu, Lei Tan, Kai Li, Rongqin Zheng, and Limin Rong

OBJECTIVE

Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) is usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance and is associated with a large radiation dose. Ultrasonography (US)–MR image fusion navigation combines the advantages of US and MRI and requires significantly less radiation than fluoroscopy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of US-MR image fusion navigation for PTED.

METHODS

From January to September 2018, patients with L4–5 lumbar disc herniation requiring PTED were randomized to have the procedure conducted with US-MR image fusion navigation or fluoroscopy. The number of fluoroscopies, radiation dose, duration of imaging guidance, intraoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, intraoperative complications, and clinical outcomes were compared between the groups.

RESULTS

There were 10 patients in the US-MR navigation group and 10 in the fluoroscopy group, and there were no significant differences in age, sex ratio, or BMI between the 2 groups (all p > 0.05). Intraoperatively, the total radiation dose, number of fluoroscopies performed, duration of image guidance, and VAS low-back and leg pain scores were all significantly lower in the US-MRI navigation group than in the fluoroscopy group (all p < 0.05). There were no intraoperative complications in either group. Postoperative improvements in Japanese Orthopaedic Association, Oswestry Disability Index, and VAS pain scale scores were similar between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS

US-MR image fusion navigation is a promising technology for performing PTED and requires significantly less radiation than fluoroscopy.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT03403244 (ClinicalTrials.gov).