Carlito Lagman, Vera Ong, Lawrance K. Chung, Lekaa Elhajjmoussa, Christina Fong, Anthony C. Wang, Quinton Gopen and Isaac Yang
The purpose of this study is to present an illustrative case of pediatric superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and to systematically review the current published literature in the pediatric population.
An electronic search of the Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Embase databases was performed by 2 independent authors through January 2017. Search term combinations included “pediatrics,” “children,” “canal,” and “dehiscence.” Inclusion criteria were as follows: English, full-text clinical studies, case reports, and case series describing pediatric patient(s) (younger than 18 years) with CT evidence of SSCD. Baseline patient demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, dehiscence characteristics, management strategies, and outcome data were extracted.
A total of 14 studies involving 122 patients were included in the quantitative synthesis. The patients’ mean age was 7.22 years. Male predominance was observed (approximate male-to-female ratio of 1.65:1). Neurodevelopmental disorders were common (n = 14, 11.5%). Auditory signs and symptoms were more common than vestibular signs and symptoms. Hearing loss (n = 62, 50.8%) was the most common auditory symptom and an indicator for imaging evaluation. Vertigo was the most common vestibular symptom (n = 8, 6.6%). Hearing aids were recommended in 8 cases (6.6%), and surgical repair was performed in 1 case (0.8%). Symptom outcomes and follow-up durations were infrequently reported.
The authors’ data suggest that in pediatric SSCD, males are more commonly affected than females. This is different than the adult population in which females are predominantly affected. A history of otologic and/or neurodevelopmental abnormalities was common. There was a preponderance of auditory symptoms in this age group. Conservative management was favored in the majority.
Lawrance K. Chung, Nolan Ung, Marko Spasic, Daniel T. Nagasawa, Panayiotis E. Pelargos, Kimberly Thill, Brittany Voth, Daniel Hirt, Quinton Gopen and Isaac Yang
Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) is a rare disorder characterized by the formation of a third opening in the inner ear between the superior semicircular canal and the middle cranial fossa. Aberrant communication through this opening causes a syndrome of hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus, disequilibrium, and autophony. This study analyzed the clinical outcomes of a single-institution series of patients with SSCD undergoing surgical repair by the same otolaryngologist and neurosurgeon.
All patients who underwent SSCD repair at the University of California, Los Angeles, between March 2011 and November 2014 were included. All patients had their SSCD repaired via middle fossa craniotomy by the same otolaryngologist and neurosurgeon. Outcomes were analyzed with Fisher's exact test.
A total of 18 patients with a mean age of 56.2 years (range 27–84 years) and an average follow-up of 5.0 months (range 0.2–21.8 months) underwent 21 cases of SSCD repair. Following treatment, all patients (100%) reported resolution in ≥ 1 symptom associated with SSCD. Autophony (p = 0.0005), tinnitus (p = 0.0059), and sound- and/or pressure-induced dizziness (p = 0.0437) showed significant symptomatic resolution. Following treatment, 29% (2/7) of patients developed imbalance, 20% (1/5) of patients developed sound- and/or pressure-induced dizziness, and 18% (2/11) of patients developed aural fullness. Among patients with improved symptoms following surgical repair, none reported recurrence of symptoms at subsequent follow-up visits.
SSCD remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated condition. Surgical repair of SSCD using a middle fossa craniotomy is associated with a high rate of symptom resolution. Continued investigation using a larger patient cohort and longer-term follow-up could further demonstrate the effectiveness of using middle fossa craniotomy for SSCD repair.