Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Laurence Katznelson; x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Kevin Chao and Laurence Katznelson

Fibrous dysplasia of the bone in adults is a rare anomaly of skeletal development caused by a defect in differentiation of osteoblasts. This condition is associated with bone pain, bone deformity, and an increased incidence of fracture. Involvement of the skull is associated with headache along with dysmorphic features. Until recently, the principal treatment has been resection or fracture repair, although the latter is often palliative at best. However, new insight into the molecular mechanism of fibrous dysplasia has led to the use of bisphosphonates to treat this disease.

The authors examined the effects of high-dose oral alendronate (40 mg daily) for 6 months on 3 adult patients with intractable headache due to fibrous dysplasia of the skull. Each patient had disease processes not amenable to surgery. The patients underwent clinical follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months. Their pain levels were documented at each visit by using a visual analog scale. All 3 patients demonstrated a significant decrease in pain levels and became independent of scheduled analgesics. Tumor bulk did not progress during this interval in any patient. Overall, alendronate was tolerated well, although in 1 patient it was discontinued early due to esophagitis. High-dose oral bisphosphonate therapy is an alternative therapeutic option for the palliative treatment of patients with fibrous dysplasia of the skull.

Free access

Arjun V. Pendharkar, Eric S. Sussman, Allen L. Ho, Melanie G. Hayden Gephart and Laurence Katznelson

Cushing's disease (CD) is a state of excess glucocorticoid production resulting from an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting pituitary adenoma. The gold-standard treatment for CD is transsphenoidal adenomectomy. In the hands of an experienced neurosurgeon, gross-total resection is possible in the majority of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, with early postoperative remission rates ranging from 67% to 95%. In contrast to the strong data in support of resection, the clinical course of postsurgical persistent or recurrent disease remains unclear. There is significant variability in recurrence rates, with reports as high as 36% with a mean time to recurrence of 15–50 months. It is therefore important to develop biochemical criteria that define postsurgical remission and that may provide prognosis for long-term recurrence. Despite the use of a number of biochemical assessments, there is debate regarding the accuracy of these tests in predicting recurrence. Here, the authors review the various biochemical criteria and assess their utility in predicting CD recurrence after resection.

Full access

Chirag G. Patil, Shivanand P. Lad, Laurence Katznelson and Edward R. Laws Jr.

✓ Cushing's disease is associated with brain atrophy and cognitive deficits. Excess glucocorticoids cause retraction and simplification of dendrites in the hippocampus, and this morphological change probably accounts for the hippocampal volume loss. Mechanisms by which glucocorticoids affect the brain include decreased neurogenesis and synthesis of neurotrophic factors, impaired glucose utilization, and increased actions of excitatory amino acids. In this review, the timing, pathology, and pathophysiology of the brain atrophy in Cushing's disease are discussed. The correlation of atrophy with cognitive deficits and its reversibility is also reviewed.

Full access

Shivanand P. Lad, Chirag G. Patil, Edward R. Laws Jr. and Laurence Katznelson

✓ Cushing's syndrome can present a complex problem of differential diagnosis. Of cases in which hypercortisolemia results from an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–dependent process, approximately 80% are due to a pituitary adenoma (Cushing's disease [CD]), 10% are due to adrenal lesions, and the remaining 10% are secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion. For patients with CD, surgical removal of the pituitary adenoma is the treatment of choice. Thus, localization of the source of ACTH secretion is critical in guiding timely treatment decisions.

Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered to be the gold standard for confirming the origin of ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

The authors present an overview of IPSS—both the technique and its interpretation—as well as a summary of recent studies. A number of other techniques are discussed including sampling from the cavernous sinus, the jugular vein, and multiple sites to aid the diagnosis and lateralization of ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas. Management is best undertaken by a comprehensive multidisciplinary team taking into account the results of all the biochemical and imaging studies available, to provide the best advice in patient treatment decisions.