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Lucas J. Castro-Alves and Mark C. Kendall

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Thomas J. Buell, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Lauren K. Dunn, Jeffrey P. Mullin, Marcus D. Mazur, Chun-Po Yen, Mark E. Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith and Bhiken I. Naik

OBJECTIVE

Significant blood loss and coagulopathy are often encountered during adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, and the optimal intraoperative transfusion algorithm is debatable. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), a functional viscoelastometric method for real-time hemostasis testing, may allow early identification of coagulopathy and improve transfusion practices. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ROTEM-guided blood product management on perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in ASD patients undergoing correction with pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed patients with ASD who underwent single-level lumbar PSO at the University of Virginia Health System. All patients who received ROTEM-guided blood product transfusion between 2015 and 2017 were matched in a 1:1 ratio to a historical cohort treated using conventional laboratory testing (control group). Co-primary outcomes were intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL) and total blood product transfusion volume. Secondary outcomes were perioperative transfusion requirements and postoperative subfascial drain output.

RESULTS

The matched groups (ROTEM and control) comprised 17 patients each. Comparison of matched group baseline characteristics demonstrated differences in female sex and total intraoperative dose of intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA). Although EBL was comparable between ROTEM versus control (3200.00 ± 2106.24 ml vs 3874.12 ± 2224.22 ml, p = 0.36), there was a small to medium effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.31) on EBL reduction with ROTEM. The ROTEM group had less total blood product transfusion volume (1624.18 ± 1774.79 ml vs 2810.88 ± 1847.46 ml, p = 0.02), and the effect size was medium to large (Cohen’s d = 0.66). This difference was no longer significant after adjusting for TXA (β = −0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1995.78 to 671.64, p = 0.32). More cryoprecipitate and less fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were transfused in the ROTEM group patients (cryoprecipitate units: 1.24 ± 1.20 vs 0.53 ± 1.01, p = 0.03; FFP volume: 119.76 ± 230.82 ml vs 673.06 ± 627.08 ml, p < 0.01), and this remained significant after adjusting for TXA (cryoprecipitate units: β = 0.39, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.73, p = 0.04; FFP volume: β = −0.41, 95% CI −772.55 to −76.30, p = 0.02). Drain output was lower in the ROTEM group and remained significant after adjusting for TXA.

CONCLUSIONS

For ASD patients treated using lumbar PSO, more cryoprecipitate and less FFP were transfused in the ROTEM group compared to the control group. These preliminary findings suggest ROTEM-guided therapy may allow early identification of hypofibrinogenemia, and aggressive management of this may reduce blood loss and total blood product transfusion volume. Additional prospective studies of larger cohorts are warranted to identify the appropriate subset of ASD patients who may benefit from intraoperative ROTEM analysis.

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Lauren K. Dunn, Marcel E. Durieux, Lucas G. Fernández, Siny Tsang, Emily E. Smith-Straesser, Hasan F. Jhaveri, Shauna P. Spanos, Matthew R. Thames, Christopher D. Spencer, Aaron Lloyd, Russell Stuart, Fan Ye, Jacob P. Bray, Edward C. Nemergut and Bhiken I. Naik

OBJECTIVE

Perception of perioperative pain is influenced by various psychological factors. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression on in-hospital opioid consumption, pain scores, and quality of recovery in adults who underwent spine surgery.

METHODS

Patients undergoing spine surgery were enrolled in this study, and the preoperatively completed questionnaires included the verbal rating scale (VRS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Quality of recovery was assessed using the 40-item Quality of Recovery questionnaire (QoR40). Opioid consumption and pain scores according to the VRS were recorded daily until discharge.

RESULTS

One hundred thirty-nine patients were recruited for the study, and 101 completed the QoR40 assessment postoperatively. Patients with higher catastrophizing scores were more likely to have higher maximum pain scores postoperatively (estimate: 0.03, SE: 0.01, p = 0.02), without increased opioid use (estimate: 0.44, SE: 0.27, p = 0.11). Preoperative anxiety (estimate: 1.18, SE: 0.65, p = 0.07) and depression scores (estimate: 1.06, SE: 0.71, p = 0.14) did not correlate with increased postoperative opioid use; however, patients with higher preoperative depression scores had lower quality of recovery after surgery (estimate: −1.9, SE: 0.56, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression play important roles in modulating postoperative pain. Preoperative evaluation of these factors, utilizing a validated tool, helps to identify patients at risk. This might allow for earlier psychological intervention that could reduce pain severity and improve the quality of recovery.