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Lauren H. Sansing, Elena A. Kaznatcheeva, Candice J. Perkins, Eugene Komaroff, Frederick B. Gutman and George C. Newman

Object. Development of edema is known to contribute to poor outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recent research has identified thrombin as a key mediator in the development of edema in animal models; however, little has been published correlating the coagulation cascade and edema in humans.

Methods. In this retrospective clinical study of 80 patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH, the authors sought to identify factors associated with edema development and outcome, including lesion imaging parameters, anticoagulant use, international normalized ratio and platelet count on hospital admission, and treatment with mannitol and steroid medications. A multivariate model was used to identify edema volume, use of mannitol, elevated blood glucose, and the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage as predictors of poor outcome at the time patients were discharged from the hospital. The authors developed a quadratic model for predicting edema volume against time by using a random coefficients model, and found that edema peaks between Days 5 and 6 after onset of ICH. The volume of the hemorrhage and the platelet count correlated significantly with edema volume within the first 24 hours post-ICH in the multiple regression analysis (p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.75). Edema growth during the first 5 days post-ICH also correlated with the platelet count, with an increasing platelet count associated with an increasing growth of edema (p = 0.0013).

Conclusions. The authors propose that factors released from activated platelets at the site of hemorrhage, for example vascular endothelial growth factor, may interact with thrombin to increase vascular permeability and contribute to the development of edema.

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Branden J. Cord, Sreeja Kodali, Sumita Strander, Andrew Silverman, Anson Wang, Fouad Chouairi, Andrew B. Koo, Cindy Khanh Nguyen, Krithika Peshwe, Alexandra Kimmel, Carl M. Porto, Ryan M. Hebert, Guido J. Falcone, Kevin N. Sheth, Lauren H. Sansing, Joseph L. Schindler, Charles C. Matouk and Nils H. Petersen


While the benefit of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion (AIS-LVO) has been clearly established, difficult vascular access may make the intervention impossible or unduly prolonged. In this study, the authors evaluated safety as well as radiographic and functional outcomes in stroke patients treated with MT via direct carotid puncture (DCP) for prohibitive vascular access.


The authors retrospectively studied patients from their prospective AIS-LVO database who underwent attempted MT between 2015 and 2018. Patients with prohibitive vascular access were divided into two groups: 1) aborted MT (abMT) after failed transfemoral access and 2) attempted MT via DCP. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. Associations with outcome were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression.


Of 352 consecutive patients with anterior circulation AIS-LVO who underwent attempted MT, 37 patients (10.5%) were deemed to have prohibitive vascular access (mean age [± SD] 82 ± 11 years, mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 17 ± 5, with females accounting for 75% of the patients). There were 20 patients in the DCP group and 17 in the abMT group. The two groups were well matched for the known predictors of clinical outcome: age, sex, and admission NIHSS score. Direct carotid access was successfully obtained in 19 of 20 patients. Successful reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b or 3) was achieved in 16 (84%) of 19 patients in the DCP group. Carotid access complications included an inability to catheterize the carotid artery in 1 patient, neck hematomas in 4 patients, non–flow-limiting common carotid artery (CCA) dissections in 2 patients, and a delayed, fatal carotid blowout in 1 patient. The neck hematomas and non–flow-limiting CCA dissections did not require any subsequent interventions and remained clinically silent. Compared with the abMT group, patients in the DCP group had smaller infarct volumes (11 vs 48 ml, p = 0.04), a greater reduction in NIHSS score (−4 vs +2.9, p = 0.03), and better functional outcome (shift analysis for 3-month modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.02–24.5; p = 0.048).


DCP for emergency MT in patients with anterior circulation AIS-LVO and prohibitive vascular access is safe and effective and is associated with higher recanalization rates, smaller infarct volumes, and improved functional outcome compared with patients with abMT after failed transfemoral access. DCP should be considered in this patient population.