Complete extirpation of tumor remains the primary goal of neurosurgeons in treating intracranial craniopharyngiomas. The intimate relationship of these lesions with the structures of the skull base and the difficulties of obtaining adequate operative visualization often make total removal an elusive goal. The authors describe the use of a combined fronto-orbitozygomatic temporopolar craniotomy to maximize the operative corridor and thereby increase the probability of maximum tumor resection without morbidity and mortality. They applied this approach in four children with craniopharyngiomas that involved the sellar and parasellar, third ventricle, cavernous sinus, and interpeduncular fossa regions. The surgical results are summarized with a presentation of pre- and postoperative imaging from two illustrative cases. A detailed description of the operative procedure is provided with a comparison to other previously described surgical approaches.
Michael L. Levy, Larry T. Khoo, J. Diaz Day, Mark Liker and J. Gordon McComb
Srinath Samudrala, Larry T. Khoo, Seung C. Rhim and Richard G. Fessler
Procedures involving anterior surgical decompression and fusion are being performed with increasing frequency for the treatment of a variety of pathological processes of the spine including trauma, deformity, infection, degenerative disease, failed-back syndrome, discogenic pain, metastases, and primary spinal neoplasms. Because these operations involve anatomy that is often unfamiliar to many neurological and orthopedic surgeons, a significant proportion of the associated complications are not related to the actual decompressive or fusion procedure but instead to the actual exposure itself. To understand the nature of these injuries, a detailed anatomical study and dissection was undertaken in six cadaveric specimens. Critical structures at risk in the abdomen and retroperitoneum were identified, and their anatomical relationships were categorized and photographed. These structures included the psoas muscle, kidneys, ureters, diaphragm and crura, esophageal hiatus, thoracic duct, greater splanchnic nerves, phrenic nerves, sympathetic chains, medial arcuate ligament, superior and inferior hypogastric plexus, segmental and radicular vertebral vessels, aorta, vena cava, median sacral artery, common iliac vessels, iliolumbar veins, lumbosacral plexus, and presacral hypogastric plexus. Based on these dissections and an extensive review of the literature, the authors provide a detailed anatomically based discussion of the complications associated with anterior lumbar surgery.
Sandi Lam and Larry T. Khoo
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive procedures used to treat persistently symptomatic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Both interventions usually involve injection of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The purpose of this technical note was to review the theory and surgical technique for a novel percutaneous system for fracture reduction and stabilization of VCFs by using bone graft.
This technical note highlights the Optimesh system as an alternative method of minimally invasive VCF reduction and stabilization with the delivery of a bone graft containment device. Instead of using PMMA as in vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, this system allows the delivery of allograft and/or autograft bone, with its osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic properties.
This system allows for restoration of sagittal alignment of the spine with direct control of bone graft delivery by using a mesh graft containment device that allows for ingrowth of new bone and vascular tissue.