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Izumi Yamaguchi, Kyong-Hon Pooh, Mai Azumi and Yasushi Takagi

Temporal crescent syndrome is a monocular visual field defect involving the temporal crescent of one eye caused by a retrochiasmal lesion. The most anterior portion of the striate cortex is the only area where the retrochiasmal lesion produces a monocular visual field defect. The authors present the case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with mild headache. MRI revealed a cyst with cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity, occupying the body and trigone of the right lateral ventricle. Conservative treatment with regular clinical and radiological follow-up was chosen because neurological examination findings were normal. Three years later, the patient experienced blurred vision with a temporal crescent defect in the left eye. Endoscopic cyst fenestration was performed, and the pathological findings indicated a glioependymal cyst. After surgery, the monocular temporal crescent disorder was resolved. MRI indicated shrinkage of the cyst and improvement in the narrowing of the anterior calcarine sulcus. These findings suggested that the temporal crescent syndrome was caused by a lateral ventricular glioependymal cyst. This is the first known report of temporal crescent syndrome caused by a lateral ventricular glioependymal cyst. In patients with monocular temporal crescent disorder without intraocular disease, a retrochiasmal lesion in the most anterior portion of the striate cortex should be considered.

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Ryoma Morigaki, Kiyohito Shinno, Kyong-Hon Pooh and Yoshinobu Nakagawa

The authors report the case of an infant with a giant glioependymal cyst. Although it has been suggested that these cysts originate from the tela choroidea, their origin remains controversial. This 35-month-old girl with truncal ataxia was referred to the authors' hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant cystic mass extending from the anterior to the posterior cranial fossa. Hydrocephalus was caused by obstruction of the sylvian aqueduct. Endoscopic fenestration of the cyst wall was performed. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining identified the lesion as a glioependymal cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 8 months later suggested that the cyst originated from the tela choroidea. At 5-year follow-up, there was no tumor recurrence and she had fully recovered. The origin of glioependymal cysts is discussed, and the authors suggest that their origin is the tela choroidea.

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Ryoma Morigaki, Kyong-Hon Pooh, Kenji Shouno, Hidekazu Taniguchi, Shouichi Endo and Yoshinobu Nakagawa

The authors report a case of choroid plexus papilloma in a girl with hypomelanosis of Ito, and they review the literature in brief. Hypomelanosis of Ito is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by cutaneous hypopigmented whorls, streaks, and patches along lines of Blaschko. Most patients exhibit CNS manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. A 6-year-old girl with hypomelanosis of Ito was referred to the authors' hospital with bilateral tumors in the lateral ventricles. The right lateral ventricle tumor was surgically removed. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed the tumor to be a choroid plexus papilloma (WHO Grade I). A chromosomal investigation revealed that the tumor tissue demonstrated a large loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 10. The case reported here serves as a reminder that de novo brain tumors may arise in patients with chromosomal mosaicism.