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Takashi Inoue, Yasutaka Kuzu, Kuniaki Ogasawara, and Akira Ogawa

Object

This study investigated the changes in the valve pressure setting of several magnetic pressure-programmable valves after exposure to a 3-tesla magnetic field.

Methods

Five each of four types of pressure-programmable shunt valves were tested: Sophy Polaris, Sophy SM8, Codman-Hakim, and Medtronic Strata. First, the valves were advanced toward the 3-tesla static magnetic field. Second, T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were generated with a radiofrequency magnetic field. Any changes in the pressure setting were observed by visual inspection with a compass or radiography.

The pressure settings were changed after exposure to the static magnetic field in all programmable valves except for the Sophy Polaris. All pressure settings studied were unchanged after exposure to both static and radiofrequency magnetic fields (T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging) in the Sophy Polaris.

Conclusions

The Sophy Polaris valve allows shunt-dependent patients who need a programmable valve to undergo 3-tesla MR imaging.

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Hiroshi Kashimura, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yoshitaka Kubo, Yasunari Otawara, and Akira Ogawa

✓ A technique is described for removing previously placed aneurysm clips and applying new aneurysm clips for the treatment of regrown or reruptured cerebral aneurysms in patients more than 10 years after the original clipping of the aneurysm neck. The adherent tissue covering previously placed clips is cut just on and alongside the clips themselves using a small scalpel. Using the clip applicator, gentle pressure is applied to open the clip blade as little as possible. The aneurysm clip is carefully slid out along the line where the clip blade has resided, and a new aneurysm clip is applied. The procedure was successfully accomplished in four patients. Whereas three of these patients had an uneventful postoperative course, the remaining patient experienced transient right oculomotor nerve palsy and left-sided motor weakness. The present technique is a useful procedure for treatment of regrown or reruptured cerebral aneurysms occurring a significantly long time after initial clipping of an aneurysm neck.

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Hideki Matsuura, Takashi Inoue, Hiromu Konno, Makoto Sasaki, Kuniaki Ogasawara, and Akira Ogawa

✓ Although various biomaterials such as ceramics or titanium alloy are widely used in neurosurgery, the susceptibility artifacts that appear around these materials cause problems when a magnetic resonance (MR) imager is used to assess lesions after surgery. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the susceptibility artifacts produced by various biomaterials used for neurosurgical implants.

Using a 3-tesla MR imaging unit, we obtained MR images of various biomaterials, including six types of ceramics, a cobalt-based alloy (Elgiloy), pure titanium, a titanium alloy, and stainless steel. All implants shared a uniform size and shape. In each image, a linear region of interest was defined across the center of the biomaterial in the transverse direction, and the diameter of the susceptibility artifact was calculated.

The ceramics produced a considerably smaller artifact diameter than those produced by other biomaterials. Among the types of ceramics, zirconia was found to produce the smallest artifact diameter. Among the remaining biomaterials, the diameters of the artifacts decreased in order from that associated with stainless steel to those associated with cobalt-based alloys, pure titanium, and titanium alloy. Little difference was observed between the artifact diameters associated with pure titanium and titanium alloy.

Ceramics are the most suitable biomaterials for minimizing artifacts in high-field MR imaging.

Open access

Yosuke Akamatsu, Hiroshi Kashimura, Shunrou Fujiwara, Yoshitaka Kubo, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

When performing clip ligation of superior projecting aneurysms of the proximal (M1) segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), meticulous sylvian fissure dissection alone may be inadequate for safe clip application, especially in cases in which the aneurysm is buried in the limen recess, since the limen insulae may be positioned lateral to the aneurysm. In the present patient series, the authors present their surgical technique for clip ligation of aneurysms located in the limen recess, with partial resection of the limen insulae.

OBSERVATIONS

A retrospective analysis of patients who had undergone clip ligation of MCA aneurysms located at the limen recess at a single institute was performed. Patients with angiographic and clinical follow-up data were considered eligible. A total of 11 aneurysms (4 ruptured and 7 unruptured aneurysms) in 11 patients were evaluated. Postoperative ischemic lesions were observed on images obtained within 1 week after surgery in 5 (45.5%) patients who had undergone partial resection of the limen insulae, although none of them presented with neurological deterioration.

LESSONS

Partial resection of limen insulae may be feasible to avoid severe ischemic complications following clip ligation of M1 aneurysms embedded in the limen recess.

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Kenya Miyoshi, Tsukasa Wada, Ikuko Uwano, Makoto Sasaki, Hiroaki Saura, Shunrou Fujiwara, Fumiaki Takahashi, Eiki Tsushima, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

OBJECTIVE

The consistency of meningiomas is a critical factor affecting the difficulty of resection, operative complications, and operative time. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and is calculated using two optimized b values. While the results of comparisons between the standard ADC and the consistency of meningiomas vary, the shifted ADC has been reported to be strongly correlated with liver stiffness. The purpose of the present prospective cohort study was to determine whether preoperative standard and shifted ADC maps predict the consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

METHODS

Standard (b values 0 and 1000 sec/mm2) and shifted (b values 200 and 1500 sec/mm2) ADC maps were calculated using preoperative DWI in patients undergoing resection of intracranial meningiomas. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed within the tumor on standard and shifted ADC maps and registered on the navigation system. Tumor tissue located at the registered ROI was resected through craniotomy, and its stiffness was measured using a durometer. The cutoff point lying closest to the upper left corner of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined for the detection of tumor stiffness such that an ultrasonic aspirator or scissors was always required for resection. Each tumor tissue sample with stiffness greater than or equal to or less than this cutoff point was defined as hard or soft tumor, respectively.

RESULTS

For 76 ROIs obtained from 25 patients studied, significant negative correlations were observed between stiffness and the standard ADC (ρ = −0.465, p < 0.01) and the shifted ADC (ρ = −0.490, p < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve for detecting hard tumor (stiffness ≥ 20.8 kPa) did not differ between the standard ADC (0.820) and the shifted ADC (0.847) (p = 0.39). The positive predictive value (PPV) for the combination of a low standard ADC and a low shifted ADC for detecting hard tumor was 89%. The PPV for the combination of a high standard ADC and a high shifted ADC for detecting soft tumor (stiffness < 20.8 kPa) was 81%.

CONCLUSIONS

A combination of standard and shifted ADC maps derived from preoperative DWI can be used to predict the consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

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Kenji Yoshida, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Masakazu Kobayashi, Junichi Tsuboi, Hitoshi Okabayashi, and Akira Ogawa

Object

Scar formation in the carotid sheath is often identified during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with previous cardiac surgery, and dissection of the carotid sheath and exposure of the carotid arteries in such patients are difficult. The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors related to scar formation identified during CEA in patients with previous cardiac surgery.

Methods

Twenty-three patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%) and previous cardiac surgery underwent CEA. A patient was prospectively defined as having scar formation during CEA when scissors were required throughout dissection of the carotid sheath and exposure of the carotid arteries.

Results

Scar formation was identified during dissection of the carotid sheath in 7 patients (30.4%). In all 7 patients, the side of CEA was identical to the side on which the Swan-Ganz catheter was inserted during cardiac surgery, and the incidence of previous ipsilateral Swan-Ganz catheter insertion was significantly higher in patients with the scar formation (100%) than in those without (31.3%). Seven (58.3%) of 12 patients with a history of ipsilateral Swan-Ganz catheter insertion had scar formation. Two of the 7 patients with scar formation experienced complications after CEA, including one patient with hemiparesis due to artery-to-artery embolism during surgery, and another patient with transient vocal cord paralysis.

Conclusions

A history of Swan-Ganz catheter insertion during previous cardiac surgery is associated with the presence of scar tissue in the ipsilateral carotid sheath and a higher risk of complications during CEA.

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Yoshitaka Kubo, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Nobuhiko Tomitsuka, Yasunari Otawara, Mikio Watanabe, and Akira Ogawa

✓ A technique combining wrapping and clip occlusion of aneurysms by using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for treatment of ruptured blisterlike aneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is described. The diameter of the abnormal arterial lesion along the long axis of the ICA and the distance between the origin of the ophthalmic artery and the origin of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), or the origin of the PCoA and the origin of the anterior choroidal artery are measured intraoperatively; a strip of PTFE membrane is then trimmed with scissors to match this diameter and distance. After temporarily occluding the cervical ICA, the intracranial ICA that includes the lesion is wrapped with the strip of PTFE, and one or more aneurysm clips are applied parallel to the ICA. This procedure was successfully accomplished in six patients, all of whom had an uneventful postoperative course with no recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage during the follow-up period. “Wrap-clipping” using PTFE is a useful procedure for management of ruptured blisterlike aneurysms of the ICA.

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Yasunari Otawara, Miguel M. Endo, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yoshitaka Kubo, Akira Ogawa, and Kouichi Watanabe

Object

Aneurysm clip reliability after long-term implantation in vivo has not been examined. In this study the authors evaluated the mechanical properties and surface elemental composition of Co-Cr alloy aneurysm clips implanted for more than 10 years in patients with cerebral aneurysms.

Methods

Five aneurysm clips implanted for ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms were retrieved and examined. New aneurysm clips were applied to the regrown aneurysms. The implantation period ranged from 11 to 20 years. Four new and unused aneurysm clips were also examined as controls. The mechanical properties of the clips were tested by measuring their closing force and bending strength. The surface elemental composition of the aneurysm clips was evaluated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The closing force of the retrieved clips exceeded the minimum force requirement at the time of manufacture. The bending strength was similar between the retrieved and control clips. Chromium oxide was the predominant constituent on the surface of all clips, and its concentration on the retrieved clips was higher than that on the control clips.

Conclusions

Data in the present study demonstrated that Co-Cr alloy aneurysm clips retain their mechanical properties in vivo for a long time, which indicates the reliability of these clips.

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Wataru Yanagihara, Kohei Chida, Masakazu Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Kubo, Kenji Yoshida, Kazunori Terasaki, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

OBJECTIVE

Some adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) undergoing revascularization surgery show an improvement or decline in cognition postoperatively. Revascularization surgery for ischemic MMD augments cerebral blood flow (CBF) and improves cerebral oxygen metabolism. However, cerebral hyperperfusion, which is a short-term, major increase in ipsilateral CBF that is much greater than the metabolic needs of the brain, sometimes occurs as a complication. Cerebral hyperperfusion produces widespread, minimal injury to the ipsilateral white matter and cortical regions. The aim of the present prospective study was to determine how changes in CBF due to arterial bypass surgery affect cognitive function in adult patients with symptomatic ischemic MMD and misery perfusion.

METHODS

Thirty-two patients with cerebral misery perfusion, as determined on the basis of 15O gas positron emission tomography, underwent single superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (M4 in the precentral region) anastomosis. Brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed preoperatively, on the 1st postoperative day, and 2 months after surgery. Neuropsychological tests were also performed preoperatively and 2 months after surgery.

RESULTS

Postoperative neuropsychological assessments demonstrated cognitive improvement in 10 cases (31%), no change in 8 cases (25%), and decline in 14 cases (44%). Based on brain perfusion SPECT and symptoms, 10 patients were considered to have cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome, and all of these patients exhibited a postoperative decline in cognition. Relative precentral CBF on the 1st postoperative day was significantly greater in patients with postoperative cognitive decline (167.3% ± 15.3%) than in those with improved (105.3% ± 18.2%; p < 0.0001) or unchanged (131.4% ± 32.1%; p = 0.0029) cognition. The difference between relative precentral CBF 2 months after surgery and that before surgery was significantly greater in patients with postoperative cognitive improvement (17.2% ± 3.8%) than in those with no postoperative change (10.1% ± 2.4%; p = 0.0003) or with postoperative decline (11.5% ± 3.2%; p = 0.0009) in cognition.

CONCLUSIONS

Cerebral hyperperfusion in the acute stage after arterial bypass surgery impairs cognitive function. An increase in CBF in the chronic stage without acute-stage cerebral hyperperfusion improves cognitive function in adult patients with symptomatic ischemic MMD and misery perfusion.

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Yoshitaka Kubo, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Akira Kurose, Shunsuke Kakino, Nobuhiko Tomitsuka, and Akira Ogawa

Although aortic or cardiac complications are common in patients with Marfan syndrome, the presence of an intracranial aneurysm is comparatively rare. In this study, the authors report on their experience with resection of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery in a 30-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome. Microscopic examination of the resected tissue showed many Alcian blue–staining deposits, consistent with the presence of mucopolysaccharide in the tunica media and focal fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina.