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Kumar Abhinav, David Hong, Carol H. Yan, Peter Hwang, and and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda

A 14-year-old boy had undergone an orbitozygomatic craniotomy for a pontine lesion. There was growth on surveillance imaging with involvement of posterior clinoids, clivus, and left pons suggestive of chordoma (Fernandez-Miranda et al., 2014b). An endoscopic endonasal approach was undertaken involving full upper and midclival exposure including bilateral posterior clinoidectomy (Fernandez-Miranda et al., 2014a; Truong et al., 2019a, 2019b). The internal carotid artery was skeletonized to maximize exposure and facilitate safe resection. The tumor was removed from between the dural layers of the midclivus while preserving the interdural abducens nerve (Barges-Coll et al., 2010). The brainstem component was resected while preserving the pontine perforators. Postoperative diagnosis was chordoma with MRI demonstrating complete resection. The patient was intact postoperatively.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/g6SQ5JVK0Ko.

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Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Nathan T. Zwagerman, Kumar Abhinav, Stefan Lieber, Eric W. Wang, Carl H. Snyderman and Paul A. Gardner

OBJECTIVE

Tumors with cavernous sinus (CS) invasion represent a neurosurgical challenge. Increasing application of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) requires a thorough understanding of the CS anatomy from an endonasal perspective. In this study, the authors aimed to develop a surgical anatomy–based classification of the CS and establish its utility for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance in adenoma surgery.

METHODS

Twenty-five colored silicon–injected human head specimens were used for endonasal and transcranial dissections of the CS. Pre- and postoperative MRI studies of 98 patients with pituitary adenoma with intraoperatively confirmed CS invasion were analyzed.

RESULTS

Four CS compartments are described based on their spatial relationship with the cavernous ICA: superior, posterior, inferior, and lateral. Each compartment has distinct boundaries and dural and neurovascular relationships: the superior compartment relates to the interclinoidal ligament and oculomotor nerve, the posterior compartment bears the gulfar segment of the abducens nerve and inferior hypophyseal artery, the inferior compartment contains the sympathetic nerve and distal cavernous abducens nerve, and the lateral compartment includes all cavernous cranial nerves and the inferolateral arterial trunk. Twenty-nine patients had a single compartment invaded, and 69 had multiple compartments involved. The most commonly invaded compartment was the superior (79 patients), followed by the posterior (n = 64), inferior (n = 45), and lateral (n = 23) compartments. Residual tumor rates by compartment were 79% in lateral, 17% in posterior, 14% in superior, and 11% in inferior.

CONCLUSIONS

The anatomy-based classification presented here complements current imaging-based classifications and may help to identify involved compartments both preoperatively and intraoperatively.

Free access

Sandip S. Panesar, Michael Magnetta, Debraj Mukherjee, Kumar Abhinav, Barton F. Branstetter, Paul A. Gardner, Michael Iv and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda

OBJECTIVE

Advances in 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology permit the rapid creation of detailed anatomical models. Integration of this technology into neurosurgical practice is still in its nascence, however. One potential application is to create models depicting neurosurgical pathology. The goal of this study was to assess the clinical value of patient-specific 3D printed models for neurosurgical planning and education.

METHODS

The authors created life-sized, patient-specific models for 4 preoperative cases. Three of the cases involved adults (2 patients with petroclival meningioma and 1 with trigeminal neuralgia) and the remaining case involved a pediatric patient with craniopharyngioma. Models were derived from routine clinical imaging sequences and manufactured using commercially available software and hardware.

RESULTS

Life-sized, 3D printed models depicting bony, vascular, and neural pathology relevant to each case were successfully manufactured. A variety of commercially available software and hardware were used to create and print each model from radiological sequences. The models for the adult cases were printed in separate pieces, which had to be painted by hand, and could be disassembled for detailed study, while the model for the pediatric case was printed as a single piece in separate-colored resins and could not be disassembled for study. Two of the models were used for patient education, and all were used for presurgical planning by the surgeon.

CONCLUSIONS

Patient-specific 3D printed models are useful to neurosurgical practice. They may be used as a visualization aid for surgeons and patients, or for education of trainees.

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Amir H. Faraji, Kumar Abhinav, Kevin Jarbo, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Samuel S. Shin, Sudhir Pathak, Barry E. Hirsch, Walter Schneider, Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda and Robert M. Friedlander

OBJECT

Brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) are challenging due to a higher symptomatic hemorrhage rate and potential morbidity associated with their resection. The authors aimed to preoperatively define the relationship of CMs to the perilesional corticospinal tracts (CSTs) by obtaining qualitative and quantitative data using high-definition fiber tractography. These data were examined postoperatively by using longitudinal scans and in relation to patients’ symptomatology. The extent of involvement of the CST was further evaluated longitudinally using the automated “diffusion connectometry” analysis.

METHODS

Fiber tractography was performed with DSI Studio using a quantitative anisotropy (QA)-based generalized deterministic tracking algorithm. Qualitatively, CST was classified as being “disrupted” and/or “displaced.” Quantitative analysis involved obtaining mean QA values for the CST and its perilesional and nonperilesional segments. The contralateral CST was used for comparison. Diffusion connectometry analysis included comparison of patients’ data with a template from 90 normal subjects.

RESULTS

Three patients (mean age 22 years) with symptomatic pontomesencephalic hemorrhagic CMs and varying degrees of hemiparesis were identified. The mean follow-up period was 37.3 months. Qualitatively, CST was partially disrupted and displaced in all. Direction of the displacement was different in each case and progressively improved corresponding with the patient’s neurological status. No patient experienced neurological decline related to the resection. The perilesional mean QA percentage decreases supported tract disruption and decreased further over the follow-up period (Case 1, 26%–49%; Case 2, 35%–66%; and Case 3, 63%–78%). Diffusion connectometry demonstrated rostrocaudal involvement of the CST consistent with the quantitative data.

CONCLUSIONS

Hemorrhagic brainstem CMs can disrupt and displace perilesional white matter tracts with the latter occurring in unpredictable directions. This requires the use of tractography to accurately define their orientation to optimize surgical entry point, minimize morbidity, and enhance neurological outcomes. Observed anisotropy decreases in the perilesional segments are consistent with neural injury following hemorrhagic insults. A model using these values in different CST segments can be used to longitudinally monitor its craniocaudal integrity. Diffusion connectometry is a complementary approach providing longitudinal information on the rostrocaudal involvement of the CST.

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Troels H. Nielsen, Kumar Abhinav, Eric S. Sussman, Summer S. Han, Yingjie Weng, Teresa Bell-Stephens, CNRN, Jeremy J. Heit and Gary K. Steinberg

OBJECTIVE

The only effective treatment for ischemic moyamoya disease (iMMD) is cerebral revascularization by an extracranial to intracranial bypass. The preferred revascularization method remains controversial: direct versus indirect bypass. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that method choice should be personalized based on angiographic, hemodynamic, and clinical characteristics to balance the risk of perioperative major stroke against treatment efficacy.

METHODS

Patients with iMMD were identified retrospectively from a prospectively maintained database. Those with mild to moderate internal carotid artery or M1 segment stenosis, preserved cerebrovascular reserve, intraoperative M4 segment anterograde flow ≥ 8 ml/min, or the absence of frequent and severe transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke had been assigned to indirect bypass. The criteria for direct bypass were severe ICA or M1 segment stenosis or occlusion, impaired cerebrovascular reserve or steal phenomenon, intraoperative M4 segment retrograde flow or anterograde flow < 8 ml/min, and the presence of frequent and severe TIAs or clinical strokes. The primary study endpoint was MRI-confirmed symptomatic stroke ≤ 7 days postoperatively resulting in a decline in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively. As a secondary endpoint, the authors assessed 6-month postoperative DSA-demonstrated revascularization, which was classified as < 1/3, 1/3–2/3, or > 2/3 of the middle cerebral artery territory.

RESULTS

One hundred thirty-eight patients with iMMD affecting 195 hemispheres revascularized in the period from March 2016 to June 2018 were included in this analysis. One hundred thirty-three hemispheres were revascularized with direct bypass and 62 with indirect bypass. The perioperative stroke rate was 4.7% and 6.8% in the direct and indirect groups, respectively (p = 0.36). Degree of revascularization was higher in the direct bypass group (p = 0.03). The proportion of patients improving to an mRS score 0–1 (from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively) tended to be higher in the direct bypass group, although the difference between the two bypass groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.27).

CONCLUSIONS

The selective use of an indirect bypass procedure for iMMD did not decrease the perioperative stroke rate. Direct bypass provided a significantly higher degree of revascularization. The authors conclude that direct bypass is the treatment of choice for iMMD.