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  • Author or Editor: Krzysztof A. Bujarski x
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Douglas Kondziolka

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Kimon Bekelis, Atman Desai, Alex Kotlyar, Vijay Thadani, Barbara C. Jobst, Krzysztof Bujarski, Terrance M. Darcey and David W. Roberts

Object

Intracranial monitoring for epilepsy has been proven to enhance diagnostic accuracy and provide localizing information for surgical treatment of intractable seizures. The authors investigated the usefulness of hippocampal depth electrodes in the era of more advanced imaging techniques.

Methods

Between 1988 and 2010, 100 patients underwent occipitotemporal hippocampal depth electrode (OHDE) implantation as part of invasive seizure monitoring, and their charts were retrospectively reviewed. The authors' technique involved the stereotactically guided (using the Leksell model G frame) implantation of a 12-contact depth electrode directed along the long axis of the hippocampus, through an occipital twist drill hole.

Results

Of the 100 patients (mean age 35.0 years [range 13–58 years], 51% male) who underwent intracranial investigation, 84 underwent resection of the seizure focus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in 27% of patients, showed abnormal findings without MTS in 55% of patients, and showed normal findings in 18% of patients. One patient developed a small asymptomatic occipital hemorrhage around the electrode tract. The use of OHDEs enabled epilepsy resection in 45.7% of patients who eventually underwent standard or selective temporal lobe resection. The hippocampal formation was spared during surgery because data obtained from the depth electrodes showed no or only secondary involvement in 14% of patients with preoperative temporal localization. The use of OHDEs prevented resections in 12% of patients with radiographic evidence of MTS. Eighty-three percent of patients who underwent resection had Engel Class I (68%) or II (15%) outcome at 2 years of follow-up.

Conclusions

The use of OHDEs for intracranial epilepsy monitoring has a favorable risk profile, and in the authors' experience it proved to be a valuable component of intracranial investigation. The use of OHDEs can provide the sole evidence for resection of some epileptogenic foci and can also result in hippocampal sparing or prevent likely unsuccessful resection in other patients.

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Atman Desai, Barbara C. Jobst, Vijay M. Thadani, Krzysztof A. Bujarski, Karen Gilbert, Terrance M. Darcey and David W. Roberts

Object

The authors describe their experience with stereotactic implantation of insular depth electrodes in patients with medically intractable epilepsy.

Methods

Between 2001 and 2009, 20 patients with epilepsy and suspected insular involvement during seizures underwent intracranial electrode array implantation at the authors' institution. All patients had either 1 or 2 insular depth electrodes placed as part of an intracranial array.

Results

A total of 29 insular depth electrodes were placed using a frontal oblique trajectory. Eleven patients had a single insular electrode placed and 8 patients had 2 insular electrodes placed unilaterally. One patient had bilateral insular electrodes implanted. Postoperative imaging demonstrated satisfactory placement in all but 1 instance, and there was no associated morbidity or mortality. Fourteen patients underwent a subsequent resection, involving the frontal lobe (9 patients), temporal lobe (4), or frontotemporal lobes (1), and of these, 11 currently have Engel Class I outcome. Two patients (10%) had seizures originating within the insula and another 5 patients (25%) demonstrated early specific insular involvement. Neither patient with an insular seizure focus went on to resection. All 5 of the patients with early specific insular involvement underwent an insula-sparing resective procedure with Engel Class I outcome in all cases.

Conclusions

Stereotactic placement of insular electrodes via a frontal oblique approach is a safe and efficient technique for investigating insular involvement in medically intractable epilepsy. The information obtained from insular recording can be valuable for appreciating the degree of insular contribution to seizures, allowing localization to the insula or clearer implication of other sites.

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Kimon Bekelis, Tarek A. Radwan, Atman Desai, Ziev B. Moses, Vijay M. Thadani, Barbara C. Jobst, Krzysztof A. Bujarski, Terrance M. Darcey and David W. Roberts

Object

Intracranial monitoring for epilepsy has been proven to enhance diagnostic accuracy and provide localizing information for surgical treatment of intractable seizures. The authors investigated their experience with interhemispheric grid electrodes (IHGEs) to assess the hypothesis that they are feasible, safe, and useful.

Methods

Between 1992 and 2010, 50 patients underwent IHGE implantation (curvilinear double-sided 2 × 8 or 3 × 8 grids) as part of arrays for invasive seizure monitoring, and their charts were retrospectively reviewed.

Results

Of the 50 patients who underwent intracranial investigation with IHGEs, 38 eventually underwent resection of the seizure focus. These 38 patients had a mean age of 30.7 years (range 11–58 years), and 63% were males. Complications as a result of IHGE implantation consisted of transient leg weakness in 1 patient. Of all the patients who underwent resective surgery, 21 (55.3%) had medial frontal resections, 9 of whom (43%) had normal MRI results. Localization in all of these cases was possible only because of data from IHGEs, and the extent of resection was tailored based on these data. Of the 17 patients (44.7%) who underwent other cortical resections, IHGEs were helpful in excluding medial seizure onset. Twelve patients did not undergo resection because of nonlocalizable or multifocal disease; in 2 patients localization to the motor cortex precluded resection. Seventy-one percent of patients who underwent resection had Engel Class I outcome at the 2-year follow-up.

Conclusions

The use of IHGEs in intracranial epilepsy monitoring has a favorable risk profile and in the authors' experience proved to be a valuable component of intracranial investigation, providing the sole evidence for resection of some epileptogenic foci.

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Krzysztof A. Bujarski, Fuyuki Hirashima, David W. Roberts, Barbara C. Jobst, Karen L. Gilbert, Robert M. Roth, Laura A. Flashman, Brenna C. McDonald, Andrew J. Saykin, Rod C. Scott, Eric Dinnerstein, Julie Preston, Peter D. Williamson and Vijay M. Thadani

Object

Previous comparisons of standard temporal lobectomy (STL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been limited by inadequate long-term follow-up, variable definitions of favorable outcome, and inadequate consideration of psychiatric comorbidities.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes in a noncontemporaneous cohort of 69 patients with unilateral refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis after either an STL or an SelAH and examined seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes.

Results

The mean duration of follow-up for STL was 9.7 years (range 1–18 years), and for trans–middle temporal gyrus SelAH (mtg-SelAH) it was 6.85 years (range 1–15 years). There was no significant difference in seizure outcome when “favorable” was defined as time to loss of Engel Class I or II status; better seizure outcome was seen in the STL group when “favorable” was defined as time to loss of Engel Class IA status (p = 0.034). Further analysis revealed a higher occurrence of seizures solely during attempted medication withdrawal in the mtg-SelAH group than in the STL group (p = 0.016). The authors found no significant difference in the effect of surgery type on any cognitive and most psychiatric variables. Standard temporal lobectomy was associated with significantly higher scores on assessment of postsurgical paranoia (p = 0.048).

Conclusions

Overall, few differences in seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcome were found between STL and mtg-SelAH on long-term follow-up. Longer exposure to medication side effects after mtg-SelAH may adversely affect quality of life but is unlikely to cause additional functional impairment. In patients with high levels of presurgical psychiatric disease, mtg-SelAH may be the preferred surgery type.