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Letter to the Editor: Angiocentric glioma

Korgun Koral

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Failure to treat obstructive hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a patient with neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Case report

Amir Kershenovich, Angela V. Price, Korgun Koral, Stan Goldman, and Dale M. Swift

The second most frequent central nervous system involvement pattern in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare condition documented in a number of reports called “neurodegenerative LCH” (ND-LCH). Magnetic resonance images confirming the presence of the disease usually demonstrate striking symmetric bilateral hyperintensities predominantly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, pons, and/or cerebral white matter. The authors here describe for the first time in the literature a patient with ND-LCH and concomitant hydrocephalus initially treated using endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). This 9-year-old boy, who had undergone chemotherapy for skin and lung LCH without central nervous system involvement at the age of 10 months, presented with acute ataxia, headaches, and paraparesis and a 1-year history of gradually increasing clumsiness. Magnetic resonance images showed obstructive hydrocephalus at the level of the aqueduct of Sylvius and signs of ND-LCH. After registering high intracranial pressure (ICP) spikes with an intraparenchymal pressure monitor, an ETV was performed. A second ETV was required months later because of ostomy occlusion, and finally a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed because of ostomy reocclusion. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was initially considered the treatment of choice to divert cerebrospinal fluid without leaving a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and to obtain biopsy specimens from the periinfundibular recess area. The third ventriculostomy occluded twice, and an endoscopic aqueduct fenestration was unsuccessful. The authors hypothesized that an inflammatory process related to late ND disease was responsible for the occlusions. Biopsy specimens from the infundibular recess and fornix column did not show histopathogical abnormalities. Increased ICP symptoms resolved with cerebrospinal fluid diversion. This case is the first instance of ND-LCH with hydrocephalus reported in the literature to date. Shunt placement rather than ETV seems to be the favorable choice in relieving elevated ICP.

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Intracerebral schwannomas: a rare disease with varying natural history

Report of 3 cases

William W. Scott, Korgun Koral, Linda R. Margraf, Laura Klesse, David J. Sacco, and Bradley E. Weprin

Although intracerebral schwannomas are typically regarded as benign intracranial tumors, malignancy and recurrence have been reported among patients harboring such neoplasms. The available literature consists of case reports and small series that present variable characteristics distinguishing these unusual lesions. Little advancement has been made to further the understanding and management of these tumors. The authors present 3 cases from their institution that highlight the difference between typical benign intracerebral schwannomas and histopathological variants that may portend more aggressive behavior. Also provided is a review of the literature in the hope of gaining a better understanding of these rare tumors.

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Predictors of tumor progression among children with gangliogliomas

Clinical article

Mostafa El Khashab, Lynn Gargan, Linda Margraf, Korgun Koral, Farideh Nejat, Dale Swift, Bradley Weprin, and Daniel C. Bowers

Object

Few reports describe the outcome and prognostic factors for children with gangliogliomas. The objective of this report was to describe the progression-free survival (PFS) for children with low-grade gangliogliomas and identify risk factors for tumor progression.

Methods

A retrospective study was performed in children with low-grade gangliogliomas who were evaluated and treated in the neuro-oncology department between 1986 and 2006 to determine risk factors for subsequent tumor progression.

Results

A total of 38 children with newly diagnosed gangliogliomas were included in this report. Thirty-four children were treated with surgery alone, 3 with subtotal resection and radiation therapy, and 1 with subtotal resection and chemotherapy. The follow-up ranged from 4 months to 15.8 years (mean 5.7 ± 4.2 years [± SD]). Seven children have experienced tumor progression, and 1 child died after his tumor subsequently underwent malignant transformation. The 5-year PFS was calculated to be 81.2% using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Initial presentation with seizures (p = 0.004), tumor location in the cerebral hemisphere (p = 0.020), and complete tumor resection (p = 0.035) were associated with prolonged PFS. Further analysis of the above significant variables by a Cox regression model identified initial presentation with seizures as being associated with prolonged PFS (p = 0.028).

Conclusions

The PFS and overall survival of children with gangliogliomas are good. Tumors located in the cerebral hemispheres, the achievement of total resection, and seizures at presentation were associated with prolonged PFS. Cox regression analysis identified presenting symptoms including seizures as significant predictive factors of PFS. Prospective studies with larger numbers of children are needed to define the significant factors of tumor progression.