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Makoto Ideguchi, Koji Kajiwara, Koichi Yoshikawa, Shoichi Kato, Masami Fujii, Hirosuke Fujisawa and Michiyasu Suzuki

The authors present a very rare case of benign fibrous histiocytoma of the skull with increased intracranial pressure caused by sinus occlusion. A 33-year-old woman was referred for investigation of a right occipital protrusion with tenderness and double vision. She had only mild divergence insufficiency and bilateral papilledema neurologically. Imaging findings showed that the skull tumor was located at the right occipital bone with bone disruption and a compressed right sigmoid sinus. When planning the resection, caution was required to spare the collateral flow so as to manage the intracranial pressure. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor was positive for CD68, α1-antichymotrypsin, and α1-antitrypsin. From these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a primary benign fibrous histiocytoma of the skull.

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Makoto Ideguchi, Koji Kajiwara, Koichi Yoshikawa, Hisaharu Goto, Kazutaka Sugimoto, Takao Inoue, Sadahiro Nomura and Michiyasu Suzuki

OBJECTIVE

To avoid ischemic complications, it is important to consider the arteries in resection planning for lesions such as a vascular intraparenchymal tumor and arteriovenous malformation. Here, the clinical application of laser speckle flow imaging (LSFI) as a complementary method for the management of mass lesion–related arteries during surgery was evaluated.

METHODS

LSFI was performed in 12 patients with mass lesion–related arteries and brain tumor or arteriovenous malformation. The portable LSFI device was centered over the surgical field, and the relative cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after the temporary interruption of the arteries was measured through continuous recording. CBF fluctuations permitted the classification of 3 kinds of artery—a feeding artery (FA), a “passing through” artery (PA), and a combined FA and PA (FA+PA)—based on decreased relative CBF in the inner resection area and unchanged CBF in the surrounding area (FA), unchanged CBF in the inner area and decreased CBF in the surrounding area (PA), or decreased CBF in both areas (FA+PA). This information allowed the appropriate management of these arteries and avoidance of postoperative ischemic complications.

RESULTS

Good visualization of CBF in the surgical field and relative CBF measurements in the regions of interest were achieved in real time with excellent spatiotemporal resolution. In 11 patients (92%) and 20 regions of interest, a decline in CBF was observed after temporary interruption of the FA (n = 8), PA (n = 2), and FA+PA (n = 2) types. There was a significant average reduction in CBF of 15.3% ± 29.0%. There were no ischemic complications, and only 1 patient had a postoperative ischemic lesion caused by resection through an artery that could not be viewed by LSFI due to a positional problem.

CONCLUSIONS

LSFI permits noninvasive and rapid intraoperative real-time recognition of mass lesion–related vasculature. This information can be used to avoid ischemic complications as a procedure complementary to neurophysiological monitoring.

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Makoto Ideguchi, Koji Kajiwara, Koichi Yoshikawa, Shoichi Kato, Hideyuki Ishihara, Masami Fujii, Hirosuke Fujisawa and Michiyasu Suzuki

A very rare case of continuous hypertension and tachycardia after excision of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma at the dorsal medulla oblongata is presented. This 21-year-old man was admitted to the authors' hospital with a headache and dizziness. Radiological examination revealed a tumor located behind the dorsal medulla oblongata and compressing it substantially. The tumor was completely resected, but after the surgery the patient experienced prolonged hypertension and tachycardia. Postoperative MR imaging showed a small injury at the dorsocaudal medulla that was located at the caudal site of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). Because the NTS has been reported to play a central role in cardiovascular regulation along with the rostral ventrolateral medulla, the authors considered it possible that the NTS injury was the cause of the prolonged elevation of sympathetic tone.

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Koji Kajiwara, Takafumi Nishizaki, Tetsuji Orita, Hisato Nakayama, Hideo Aoki and Haruhide Ito

✓ A silver colloid staining technique for identifying nucleolar organizer region-associated proteins (Ag-NOR's) was applied to 51 human gliomas. These comprised 20 glioblastomas multiforme, 15 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 16 astrocytomas, in which the mean numbers of Ag-NOR's per cell (± standard error of the mean) were 2.51 ± 0.12, 2.01 ± 0.10, and 1.76 ± 0.06, respectively. Significant differences among these were recognized, and the mean number of Ag-NOR's paralleled the degree of histopathological malignancy. In 16 cases, studies were performed of the number of Ag-NOR's and the S-phase fraction by in vitro labeling using anti-bromodeoxyuridine monoclonal antibody. A linear relationship was demonstrated between these two factors (r = 0.857, p < 0.001), although some scatter was seen. In 32 adult patients, the correlation between the number of Ag-NOR's and the prognosis was estimated. The results demonstrated that the group containing patients with less than 1.80 Ag-NOR's per cell had a better prognosis than the group with 1.80 Ag-NOR's or more. Thus, the number of Ag-NOR's reflected the degree of histopathological malignancy, S-phase fraction, and prognosis. Silver colloid staining for Ag-NOR's is a simple, rapid, and reproducible method for estimating the proliferative potential of human gliomas without requiring a complicated technique.

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Hisashi Kubota, Ehichi Suehiro, Hiroshi Yoneda, Sadahiro Nomura, Koji Kajiwara, Masami Fujii, Hirosuke Fujisawa, Shoichi Kato and Michiyasu Suzuki

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Yoshihiko Maeda, Koichi Yoshikawa, Koji Kajiwara, Makoto Ideguchi, Takayuki Amano, Makoto Saka, Sadahiro Nomura, Masami Fujii and Michiyasu Suzuki

The authors report a rare case of intracranial yolk sac tumor in a 13-year-old boy with Down syndrome who presented with left hemiparesis. Admission MR imaging revealed a tumor in the right basal ganglia. Serum α-fetoprotein was markedly elevated. Yolk sac tumor was diagnosed radiologically and serologically. The standard therapy for intracranial yolk sac tumor is platinum-based chemotherapy with concomitant radiotherapy. However, the authors used reduced-dose chemotherapy and asynchronized radiotherapy because of the well-known low tolerance of patients with Down syndrome to chemotherapy. This treatment was successful with no complications. Blood cancers are frequently associated with Down syndrome, whereas solid tumors occur less frequently in these patients, and the risk of chemoradiotherapy is unclear. The results indicate that dose-reduction therapy can be effective for treatment of a brain tumor in a patient with Down syndrome.

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Makoto Saka, Takayuki Amano, Koji Kajiwara, Koichi Yoshikawa, Makoto Ideguchi, Sadahiro Nomura, Hirosuke Fujisawa, Shoichi Kato, Masami Fujii, Koji Ueno, Yuji Hinoda and Michiyasu Suzuki

Object

The Il13ra2 gene is often overexpressed in brain tumors, making Il13ra2 one of the vaccine targets for immunotherapy of glioma. In this study, using a mouse glioma model, the authors tested the hypothesis that vaccination using dendritic cells transfected with Il13ra2 mRNA induces strong immunological antitumor effects.

Methods

A plasmid was constructed for transduction of the mRNAs transcribed in vitro into dendritic cells. This was done to transport the intracellular protein efficiently into major histocompatibility complex class II compartments by adding a late endosomal/lysosomal sorting signal to the Il13ra2 gene. The dendritic cells transfected with this Il13ra2 mRNA were injected intraperitoneally into the mouse glioma model at 3 and 10 days after tumor cell implantation. The antitumor effects were estimated based on the survival rate, results of histological analysis, and immunohistochemical findings for immune cells.

Results

The group treated by vaccination therapy with dendritic cells transfected with Il13ra2 mRNA survived significantly longer than did the control groups. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that greater numbers of T lymphocytes containing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found in the group vaccinated with dendritic cells transfected with Il13ra2 mRNA.

Conclusions

These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of vaccination with dendritic cells transfected with Il13ra2 mRNA for the treatment of malignant glioma.

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Takafumi Nishizaki, Tetsuji Orita, Koji Kajiwara, Norio Ikeda, Noboru Ohshita, Hisato Nakayama, Yasuhiro Furutani, Yukihide Ikeyama, Tatsuo Akimura, Toshifumi Kamiryo and Haruhide Ito

✓ There are no previous reports correlating the in vitro bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) labeling index (LI) with the clinical outcome in patients with brain tumors. The reliability of the LI as a predictor of patient survival or recurrence was examined in this study of 66 human brain tumors (19 gliomas, 18 meningiomas, and 29 others). Anti-BUdR staining was performed on surgically extirpated tumor tissue that had been treated with BUdR as previously described. Correlation of the BUdR LI with patient survival or tumor recurrence rate was carried out by the method of Kaplan and Meier. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) aneuploidy was estimated in 52 cases.

The results of this study indicate that BUdR LI values correlated well with the clinical course of patients with brain tumor. In comparison with patients with higher LI's, there was both a significantly higher survival rate for tumors other than meningiomas and a higher recurrence-free rate for meningiomas in patients with LI's of less than 4% and 1%, respectively. Although there was a tendency for patients without tumor aneuploidy to show better survival data than the others, no statistical difference was observed. These results suggest that the in vitro BUdR labeling method is reliable for prediction of a patient's prognosis, whereas prognosis on the basis of DNA aneuploidy alone is uncertain.

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Takayuki Amano, Koji Kajiwara, Koichi Yoshikawa, Jun Morioka, Sadahiro Nomura, Hirosuke Fujisawa, Shoichi Kato, Masami Fujii, Mikiko Fukui, Yuji Hinoda and Michiyasu Suzuki

Object

The receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) is frequently overexpressed in brain tumors and was recently identified as an immunogenic antigen by using serological screening of cDNA expression libraries. In this study, which was conducted using a mouse glioma model, the authors tested the hypothesis that vaccination with dendritic cells transfected with RHAMM mRNA induces strong immunological antitumor effects.

Methods

The authors constructed a plasmid for transduction of the mRNAs transcribed in vitro into dendritic cells, which were then used to transport the intracellular protein RHAMM efficiently into major histocompatibility complex class II compartments by adding a late endosomal–lysosomal sorting signal to the RHAMM gene. The dendritic cells transfected with this RHAMM mRNA were injected intraperitoneally into the mouse glioma model 3 and 10 days after tumor cell implantation. The antitumor effects of the vaccine were estimated by the survival rate, histological analysis, and immunohistochemical findings for immune cells.

Mice in the group treated by vaccination therapy with dendritic cells transfected with RHAMM mRNA survived significantly longer than those in the control groups. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that greater numbers of T lymphocytes containing T cells activated by CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ were found in the group vaccinated with dendritic cells transfected with RHAMM mRNA.

Conclusions

These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of vaccination with dendritic cells transfected with RHAMM mRNA for the treatment of malignant glioma.

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Takayuki Oku, Masami Fujii, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Hirochika Imoto, Joji Uchiyama, Fumiaki Oka, Ichiro Kunitsugu, Hiroshi Fujioka, Sadahiro Nomura, Koji Kajiwara, Hirosuke Fujisawa, Shoichi Kato, Takashi Saito and Michiyasu Suzuki

Object

Focal brain cooling has been recognized to have a suppressive effect on epileptiform discharges or a protective effect on brain tissue. However, the precise influence of brain cooling on normal brain function and histology has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiopathological consequences of focal cooling and to detect the threshold temperature that causes irreversible histological change and motor dysfunction.

Methods

The experiments were performed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 250–350 g) after induction of halothane anesthesia. A thermoelectric chip (6 × 6 × 2 mm) was used as a cooling device and was placed on the surface of the sensorimotor cortex after a 10 × 8–mm craniotomy. A thermocouple was placed between the chip and the brain surface. Focal cooling of the cortex was performed at the temperatures of 20, 15, 10, 5, 0, and −5°C for 1 hour (5 rats in each group). Thereafter, the cranial window was repaired. Motor function was evaluated using the beam-walking scale (BWS) every day for 7 days. The rats were killed 7 days after the operation for histological examination with H & E, Klüver-Barrera, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling stainings. The authors also euthanized some rats 24 hours after cooling and obtained brain sections by the same methods.

Results

The BWS score was decreased on the day after cooling only in the −5°C group (p < 0.05), whereas the score did not change in the other temperature groups. Histologically, the appearance of cryoinjury such as necrosis, apoptosis, loss of neurons, and marked proliferation of astrocytes at the periphery of the lesion was observed only in the −5°C group, while no apparent changes were observed in the other temperature groups.

Conclusions

The present study confirmed that the focal cooling of the cortex for 1 hour above the temperature of 0°C did not induce any irreversible histological change or motor dysfunction. These results suggest that focal brain cooling above 0°C has the potential to be a minimally invasive and valuable modality for the treatment of severe brain injury or to assist in the examination of brain function.