Although carmustine (Gliadel) wafers improve local tumor control and extend the overall survival in patients with malignant glioma, adverse effects have been documented. The authors report the first case of eosinophilic meningitis triggered by the placement of Gliadel wafers. A 61-year-old man with a history of alimentary allergy and glioblastoma in the right frontal lobe underwent resection followed by the implantation of Gliadel wafers. Three weeks later he suffered the sudden onset of headache, vomiting, and progressive consciousness disturbance. Computed tomography revealed enlargement of the ventricular system and subdural space on the side of the tumor. His CSF leukocyte count increased up to 3990 cells/mm3; 95% of the cells were eosinophilic granulocytes (EGs), suggesting eosinophilic meningitis. Laboratory examination showed the patient to have various elevated allergy indicators. The administration of corticosteroids failed to improve his condition. Despite the insertion of a lumbar drain his symptoms failed to improve. He underwent a second surgical intervention to remove the Gliadel wafers. Histologically, EGs had assembled around the wafers. Eosinophilic infiltrate was present in the brain parenchyma around small vessels. After ventriculoperitoneal shunting his course was favorable. A drug lymphocyte stimulation test against the Gliadel wafers failed to demonstrate a positive reaction; polifeprosan, the wafer matrix without 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, yielded a positive reaction. These findings strongly suggest that although extremely rare, polifeprosan (the wafer matrix) can elicit an allergic reaction. When eosinophilic meningitis is suspected after the implantation of Gliadel wafers, their immediate removal should be considered.
Kiyotaka Saito, Kouji Yamasaki, Kiyotaka Yokogami, Asya Ivanova, Go Takeishi, Yuichiro Sato and Hideo Takeshima
Takuma Kawasoe, Hideo Takeshima, Shinji Yamashita, Sohei Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi Fukushima, Kiyotaka Yokogami and Kouji Yamasaki
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), one of the most aggressive tumors in humans, is highly angiogenic. However, treatment with the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab has not significantly prolonged overall patient survival times. GBM resistance to angiogenesis inhibitors is attributed to multiple interacting mechanisms. Although mesenchymal transition via glioma stem-like cells has attracted attention, it is considered a poor biomarker. There is no simple method for differentiating tumor-derived and reactive vascular cells from normal cells. The authors attempted to detect the mesenchymal transition of tumor cells by means of p53 and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) immunohistochemistry.
Using antibody against p53 and IDH1 R132H, the authors immunohistochemically analyzed GBM tissue from patients who had undergone surgery at the University of Miyazaki Hospital during August 2005–December 2011. They focused on microvascular proliferation with a p53-positive ratio exceeding 50%. They compared TP53 mutations in original tumor tissues and in p53-positive and p53-negative microvascular proliferation cells collected by laser microdissection.
Among 61 enrolled GBM patients, the first screening step (immunostaining) identified 46 GBMs as p53 positive, 3 of which manifested areas of prominent p53-positive microvascular proliferation (> 50%). Histologically, areas of p53-positive microvascular proliferation tended to be clustered, and they coexisted with areas of p53-negative microvascular proliferation. Both types of microvascular proliferation cells were clearly separated from original tumor cells by glial fibrillary acidic protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, and low-/high-molecular-weight cytokeratin. DNA sequencing analysis disclosed that p53-positive microvascular proliferation cells exhibited TP53 mutations identical to those observed in the original tumor; p53-negative microvascular proliferation cells contained a normal allele. Although immunostaining indicated that 3 (2 primary and 1 secondary) of the 61 GBMs were positive for IDH1, no tumors contained microvascular proliferation cells positive for IDH1 R132H.
Some microvascular proliferation clusters in GBM result from mesenchymal transition. The identification of useful markers might reveal this phenomenon as an infrequent event in GBMs.
Shinji Yamashita, Kiyotaka Yokogami, Fumitaka Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Saito, Asako Mizuguchi, Hajime Ohta and Hideo Takeshima
The authors assessed MGMT promoter methylation results obtained by methylation-sensitive PCR (MS-PCR) and high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) methods to determine whether MS-HRM overcomes the limitations of MS-PCR. They found that MS-HRM was superior to MS-PCR for predicting survival outcome in 75 GBM patients with and without MGMT promoter methylation. Based on the results of multivariate Cox analysis, MS-HRM revealed independent prognostic factors. The authors suggest that MS-HRM is optimal for assessing the MGMT promoter methylation status and that it represents an alternative to MS-PCR.