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Marie-Noëlle Hébert-Blouin, Kimberly K. Amrami and Robert J. Spinner

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Mark A. Mahan, Kimberly K. Amrami and Robert J. Spinner

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Stepan Capek, Benjamin M. Howe, Kimberly K. Amrami and Robert J. Spinner

OBJECT

Perineural spread along pelvic autonomie nerves has emerged as a logical, anatomical explanation for selected cases of neoplastic lumbosacral plexopathy (LSP) in patients with prostate, bladder, rectal, and cervical cancer. The authors wondered whether common radiological and clinical patterns shared by various types of pelvic cancer exist.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed their institutional series of 17 cases concluded as perineural tumor spread. All available history, physical examination, electrodiagnostic studies, biopsy data and imaging studies, evidence of other metastatic disease, and follow-up were recorded in detail. The series was divided into 2 groups: cases with neoplastic lumbosacral plexopathy confirmed by biopsy (Group A) and cases included based on imaging characteristics despite the lack of biopsy or negative biopsy results (Group B).

RESULTS

Group A comprised 10 patients (mean age 69 years); 9 patients were symptomatic and 1 was asymptomatic. The L5–S1 spinal nerves and sciatic nerve were most frequently involved. Three patients had intradural extension. Seven patients were alive at last follow-up. Group B consisted of 7 patients (mean age 64 years); 4 patients were symptomatic, 2 were asymptomatic, and 1 had only imaging available. The L5–S1 spinal nerves and the sciatic nerve were most frequently involved. No patients had intradural extension. Four patients were alive at last follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors provide a unifying theory to explain lumbosacral plexopathy in select cases of various pelvic neoplasms. The tumor cells can use splanchnic nerves as conduits and spread from the end organ to the lumbosacral plexus. Tumor can continue to spread along osseous and muscle nerve branches, resulting in muscle and bone “metastases.” Radiological studies show a reproducible, although nonspecific pattern, and the same applies to clinical presentation.

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Robert J. Spinner, Bernd W. Scheithauer and Kimberly K. Amrami

✓ The authors describe the case of a patient with a novel cause of medial plantar symptoms due to extrinsic compression by a schwannoma arising within the adventitia of the tibial artery in the ankle region. Additionally they provide the operative, histological, and imaging findings.

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Ziv Williams, Kimberly K. Amrami and Robert J. Spinner

✓Tumoral calcinosis is a rare disorder that leads to diffuse calcium phosphate deposition into soft tissue and may be seen in the setting of uremia, hyperparathyroidism, or vitamin D intoxication. This lesion can produce significant local pain and can limit mobility in large joints where it tends to occur. Less commonly, it may produce neurological symptoms by compressing or encompassing adjacent neurovascular structures. Tumoral calcinosis involving nerve structures is challenging to treat, primarily because of its extensive size and propensity to infiltrate. Although surgical intervention can often provide symptomatic improvement, this lesion tends to recur in the presence of elevated calcium phosphate levels, and its management therefore requires a combined multidisciplinary surgical and medical approach. The authors describe two cases in which patients developed tumoral calcinosis producing peripheral nerve compression and discuss their respective surgical and medical management.

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Nikhil K. Prasad, Mark A. Mahan, Benjamin M. Howe, Kimberly K. Amrami and Robert J. Spinner

Lipomatosis of nerve (LN) is a rare disorder of peripheral nerves that produces proliferation of interfascicular adipose tissue. It may be associated with soft-tissue and bony overgrowth within the affected nerve territory. LN has been almost exclusively reported in appendicular peripheral nerves; the median nerve at the wrist and palm is among the most common locations. The authors present a new pattern of LN that shows circumferential proliferation of fat around the epineurium of the nerve. They believe that this case and the two other documented examples in the literature (also affecting cervical and thoracic spinal nerves) share the same new pattern of LN. Defining the full spectrum of adipose lesions of the nerve and establishing a cause-effect relationship with nerve-territory overgrowth disorders may offer options for future management through targeted nerve lesioning.

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Robert J. Spinner, Bernd W. Scheithauer, Kimberly K. Amrami, Doris E. Wenger and Marie-Noëlle Hébert-Blouin

Object

Adipose lesions of nerve are rare and poorly understood. Their current classification, although not universally accepted, generally includes lipomatosis of nerve with or without localized macrodactyly, and intra- as well as extraneural lipoma. The authors believe that the spectrum of these lesions and their interrelationships are not currently appreciated. They propose an adaptation to the existing framework to illustrate the expanding spectrum of adipose lesions of nerve by considering lipomatosis and lipoma singly or in combination.

Methods

Fourteen representative cases are presented to demonstrate not only the intraneural and extraneural examples of lipomatosis and lipoma, but also their anatomical combinations.

Results

Based on the cases presented and a careful literature review, a conceptual approach to the classification of adipose lesions of nerve is generated. This approach incorporates the 2 essential lesions, lipomatosis of nerve and lipoma, in both their intra- and extraneural forms. This permits expansion to encompass combinations.

Conclusions

To press the concept that adipose tumors of nerve are a broad but interrelated spectrum of lesions, the authors propose modification of the present classification system. This approach provides an orderly platform for progress, reflects understanding of these interrelated lesions, and facilitates optimal treatment by distinguishing resectable from nonresectable components.

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Stepan Capek, Kimberly K. Amrami, P. James B. Dyck and Robert J. Spinner

OBJECT

Nerve biopsy is typically performed in distal, noncritical sensory nerves without using imaging to target the more involved regions. The yield of these procedures rarely achieves more than 50%. In selected cases where preoperative evaluation points toward a more localized (usually a more proximal) process, targeted biopsy would likely capture the disease. Synthesis of data obtained from clinical examination, electrophysiological testing, and MRI allows biopsy of a portion of the major mixed nerves safely and efficiently. Herein, experiences with the sciatic nerve are reported and a description of the operative technique is provided.

METHODS

All cases of sciatic nerve biopsy performed between 2000 and 2014 were reviewed. Only cases of fascicular nerve biopsy approached from the buttock or the posterior aspect of the thigh were included. Demographic data, clinical presentation, and the presence of percussion tenderness for each patient were recorded. Reviewed studies included electrodiagnostic tests and imaging. Previous nerve and muscle biopsies were noted. All details of the procedure, final pathology, and its treatment implications were recorded. The complication rate was carefully assessed for temporary as well as permanent complications.

RESULTS

One hundred twelve cases (63 men and 49 women) of sciatic nerve biopsy were performed. Mean patient age was 46.4 years. Seventy-seven (68.8%) patients presented with single lower-extremity symptoms, 16 (14.3%) with bilateral lower-extremity symptoms, and 19 (17%) with generalized symptoms. No patient had normal findings on physical examination. All patients underwent electrodiagnostic studies, the findings of which were abnormal in 110 (98.2%) patients. MRI was available for all patients and was read as pathological in 111 (99.1%). The overall diagnostic yield of biopsy was 84.8% (n = 95). The pathological diagnoses included inflammatory demyelination, perineurioma, nonspecific inflammatory changes, neurolymphomatosis, amyloidosis, prostate cancer, injury neuroma, neuromuscular choristoma, sarcoidosis, vasculitis, hemangiomatosis, arteriovenous malformation, fibrolipomatous hamartoma (lipomatosis of nerve), and cervical adenocarcinoma. The series included 11 (9.9%) temporary and 5 (4.5%) permanent complications: 3 patients (2.7%) reported permanent numbness in the peroneal division distribution, and 2 patients (1.8%) were diagnosed with neuromuscular choristoma that developed desmoid tumor at the biopsy site 3 and 8 years later.

CONCLUSIONS

Targeted fascicular biopsy of the sciatic nerve is a safe and efficient diagnostic procedure, and in highly selected cases can be offered as the initial procedure over distal cutaneous nerve biopsy. Diagnoses were very diverse and included entities considered very rare. Even for the more prevalent diagnoses, the biopsy technique allowed a more targeted approach with a higher diagnostic yield and justification for more aggressive treatment. In this series, new radiological patterns of some entities were identified, which could be biopsied less frequently.

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Chandan G. Reddy, Kimberly K. Amrami, Benjamin M. Howe and Robert J. Spinner

OBJECT

Knee dislocations are often accompanied by stretch injuries to the common peroneal nerve (CPN). A small subset of these injuries also affect the tibial nerve. The mechanism of this combined pattern could be a single longitudinal stretch injury of the CPN extending to the sciatic bifurcation (and tibial division) or separate injuries of both the CPN and tibial nerve, either at the level of the tibiofemoral joint or distally at the soleal sling and fibular neck. The authors reviewed cases involving patients with knee dislocations with CPN and tibial nerve injuries to determine the localization of the combined injury and correlation between degree of MRI appearance and clinical severity of nerve injury.

METHODS

Three groups of cases were reviewed. Group 1 consisted of knee dislocations with clinical evidence of nerve injury (n = 28, including 19 cases of complete CPN injury); Group 2 consisted of knee dislocations without clinical evidence of nerve injury (n = 19); and Group 3 consisted of cases of minor knee trauma but without knee dislocation (n = 14). All patients had an MRI study of the knee performed within 3 months of injury. MRI appearance of tibial and common peroneal nerve injury was scored by 2 independent radiologists in 3 zones (Zone I, sciatic bifurcation; Zone II, knee joint; and Zone III, soleal sling and fibular neck) on a severity scale of 1–4. Injury signal was scored as diffuse or focal for each nerve in each of the 3 zones. A clinical score was also calculated based on Medical Research Council scores for strength in the tibial and peroneal nerve distributions, combined with electrophysiological data, when available, and correlated with the MRI injury score.

RESULTS

Nearly all of the nerve segments visualized in Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated some degree of injury on MRI (95%), compared with 12% of nerve segments in Group 3. MRI nerve injury scores were significantly more severe in Group 1 relative to Group 2 (2.06 vs 1.24, p < 0.001) and Group 2 relative to Group 3 (1.24 vs 0.13, p < 0.001). In both groups of patients with knee dislocations (Groups 1 and 2), the MRI nerve injury score was significantly higher for CPN than tibial nerve (2.72 vs 1.40 for Group 1, p < 0.001; 1.39 vs 1.09 for Group 2, p < 0.05). The clinical injury score had a significantly strong correlation with the MRI injury score for the CPN (r = 0.75, p < 0.001), but not for the tibial nerve (r = 0.07, p = 0.83).

CONCLUSIONS

MRI is highly sensitive in detecting subclinical nerve injury. In knee dislocation, clinical tibial nerve injury is always associated with simultaneous CPN injury, but tibial nerve function is never worse than peroneal nerve function. The point of maximum injury can occur in any of 3 zones.

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Pierre Laumonerie, Stepan Capek, Kimberly K. Amrami, P. James B. Dyck and Robert J. Spinner

OBJECTIVE

Nerve biopsy is useful in the management of neuromuscular disorders and is commonly performed in distal, noncritical cutaneous nerves. In general, these procedures are diagnostic in only 20%–50%. In selected cases in which preoperative evaluation points toward a more localized process, targeted biopsy would likely improve diagnostic yield. The authors report their experience with targeted fascicular biopsy of the brachial plexus and provide a description of the operative technique.

METHODS

All cases of targeted biopsy of the brachial plexus biopsy performed between 2003 and 2015 were reviewed. Targeted nerve biopsy was performed using a supraclavicular, infraclavicular, or proximal medial arm approach. Demographic data and clinical presentation as well as the details of the procedure, adverse events (temporary or permanent), and final pathological findings were recorded.

RESULTS

Brachial plexus biopsy was performed in 74 patients (47 women and 27 men). The patients' mean age was 57.7 years. All patients had abnormal findings on physical examination, electrodiagnostic studies, and MRI. The overall diagnostic yield of biopsy was 74.3% (n = 55). The most common diagnoses included inflammatory demyelination (19), breast carcinoma (17), neurolymphomatosis (8), and perineurioma (7). There was a 19% complication rate; most of the complications were minor or transient, but 4 patients (5.4%) had increased numbness and 3 (4.0%) had additional weakness following biopsy.

CONCLUSIONS

Targeted fascicular biopsy of the brachial plexus is an effective diagnostic procedure, and in highly selected cases should be considered as the initial procedure over nontargeted, distal cutaneous nerve biopsy. Using MRI to guide the location of a fascicular biopsy, the authors found this technique to produce a higher diagnostic yield than historical norms as well as providing justification for definitive treatment.