Martin J. Murphy, Steven Chang, Iris Gibbs, Quynh-Tu Le, David Martin and Daniel Kim
The authors describe a new method for treating metastatic spinal tumors in which noninvasive, image-guided, frameless stereotactic radiosurgery is performed. Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers a high dose of radiation in a single or limited number of fractions to a lesion while maintaining delivery of a low dose to adjacent normal structures.
Image-guided radiosurgery was developed by coupling an orthogonal pair of real-time x-ray cameras to a dynamically manipulated robot-mounted linear accelerator that guides the radiation beam to treatment sites associated with radiographic landmarks. This procedure can be conducted in an outpatient setting without the use of frame-based skeletal fixation. The system relies on skeletal landmarks or implanted fiducial markers to locate treatment targets. Four patients with spinal metastases underwent radiosurgery with total prescription doses of 1000 to 1600 cGy in one or two fractions. Alignment of the treatment dose with the target volume was accurate to within 1.5 mm. During the course of each treatment fraction, patient movement was less than 0.5 mm on average. Dosimetry was highly conformal, with a demonstrated ability to deliver 1600 cGy to the perimeter of an irregular target volume while keeping exposure to the cord itself below 800 cGy.
These experiences indicate that frameless radiosurgery is a viable therapeutic option for metastatic spine disease.
Ahmed M. Raslan and Kim J. Burchiel
Russell R. Lonser, Martin Baggenstos, H. Jeffrey Kim, John A. Butman and Alexander O. Vortmeyer
Although endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) frequently destroy the posterior petrous bone and cause hearing loss, the anatomical origin of these neoplasms is unknown. To determine the precise topographic origin of ELSTs, the authors analyzed the imaging, operative, and pathological findings in patients with von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL) and ELSTs.
Consecutive VHL patients with small (≤ 1.5 cm) ELSTs who underwent resection at the National Institutes of Health were included. Clinical, imaging, operative, and pathological findings were analyzed.
Ten consecutive VHL patients (6 male and 4 female) with 10 small ELSTs (≤ 1.5 cm; 9 left, 1 right) were included. Serial imaging captured the development of 6 ELSTs and revealed that they originated within the intraosseous (vestibular aqueduct) portion of the endolymphatic duct/sac system. Imaging just before surgery demonstrated that the epicenters of 9 ELSTs (1 ELST was not visible on preoperative imaging) were in the vestibular aqueduct. Inspection during surgery established that all 10 ELSTs were limited to the intraosseous endolymphatic duct/sac and the immediately surrounding region. Histological analysis confirmed tumor within the intraosseous portion (vestibular aqueduct) of the endolymphatic duct/sac in all 10 patients.
ELSTs originate from endolymphatic epithelium within the vestibular aqueduct. High-resolution imaging through the region of the vestibular aqueduct is essential for diagnosis. Surgical exploration of the endolymphatic duct and sac is required for complete resection.
Clemens M. Schirmer, Jay L. Shils, Jeffrey E. Arle, G. Rees Cosgrove, Peter K. Dempsey, Edward Tarlov, Stephan Kim, Christopher J. Martin, Carl Feltz, Marina Moul and Subu Magge
Considerable overlap exists in nerve root innervation of various muscles. Knowledge of myotomal innervation is essential for the interpretation of neurological examination findings and neurosurgical decision-making. Previous studies relied on cadaveric dissections, animal studies, and cases with anomalous anatomy. This study investigates the myotomal innervation patterns of cervical and lumbar nerve roots through in vivo stimulation during surgeries for spinal decompression.
Patients undergoing cervical and lumbar surgeries in which nerve roots were exposed in the normal course of surgery were included in the study. Electromyography electrodes were placed in the muscle groups that are generally accepted to be innervated by the roots under study. These locations included levels above and below the spinal levels undergoing decompression. After decompression, a unipolar neural stimulator probe was placed directly on the nerve root sleeve and constant current stimulation in increments of 0.1 mA was performed. Current was raised until at least a 100 μV amplitude–triggered electromyographic response was noted in 1 or more muscles. All muscles that responded were recorded.
A total of 2295 nerve root locations in 129 patients (mean age 57 ± 15 years, 47 female [36%]) were stimulated, and 1589 stimulations met quality criteria and were analyzed. Four hundred ninety-five stimulations were performed on roots contributing to the cervical and brachial plexus from C-3 to T-1 (31.2%), and 1094 (68.8%) were roots in the lumbosacral plexus between L-1 and S-2. The authors were able to construct a statistical map of the contributions of each cervical and lumbosacral nerve root for the set of muscle groups monitored in the protocol. In many cases the range of muscles innervated by a specific root was broader than previously described in textbooks.
This is the largest data set of direct intraoperative nerve root stimulations during decompressive surgery, demonstrating the relative contribution of root-level motor input to various muscle groups. Compared with classic neuroanatomy, a significant number of roots innervate a broader range of muscles than expected, which may account for the variability of presentation between patients with identical number and location of compressed roots.
2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010