Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 24 items for

  • Author or Editor: Kim D. Anderson x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Andrew C. Zacest, Stephen T. Magill, Valerie C. Anderson, and Kim J. Burchiel

Object

Ilioinguinal neuralgia is one cause of chronic groin pain following inguinal hernia repair, and it affects ~ 10% of patients. Selective ilioinguinal neurectomy is one proposed treatment option for carefully selected patients. The goal of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of patients who underwent selective ilioinguinal neurectomy for chronic post-hernia pain.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical assessment, surgical treatment, and long-term outcome in 26 patients with ilioinguinal neuralgia who underwent selective ilioinguinal neurectomy performed by the senior author (K.J.B.) at Oregon Health & Science University between 1998 and 2008. Data were collected from patient charts and a follow-up telephone questionnaire.

Results

Twenty-six patients (14 men and 12 women) had a clinical diagnosis of ilioinguinal neuralgia based on a history of radiating neuropathic groin, medial thigh, and genitalia pain. One patient had bilateral disease (therefore there were 27 surgical cases). A selective nerve block was performed in 21 (81%) of 26 patients and was positive in 20 (77%) of the 26. In all but 2 patients, pain onset followed abdominal surgery (for hernia repair in 18 patients), and was immediate in 16 (67%) of 24 patients. The mean patient age was 48.7 years, and the mean duration of pain prior to neurosurgical consultation was 3.9 years. Surgery was performed after induction of local or general anesthesia in 17 and 10 cases, respectively. The ilioinguinal nerve was identified in 25 cases, and the genitofemoral nerve in 2, either entrapped in mesh, scar, or with obvious neuroma (22 of 27 cases). The identified nerve was doubly ligated, cut, and buried in muscle at its most proximal point. At the 2-week follow-up evaluations, 14 (74%) of 19 patients noted definite pain improvement.

Nineteen (73%) of the 26 patients were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in completing long-term follow-up questionnaires. The mean follow-up duration was 34.78 months. Return of pain was reported by 13 (68%) of 19 patients. Using a verbal numerical rating scale (0–10), pain was completely relieved in 27.8%, better in 38.9%, no better in 16.7%, and worse in 16.7% of patients.

Conclusions

Ilioinguinal neurectomy is an effective and appropriate treatment for selected patients with iatrogenic ilioinguinal neuralgia following abdominal surgery. Although a high proportion of patients reported some long-term recurrence of pain, complete or partial pain relief was achieved in 66.7% of the patients observed.

Free access

Nathan R. Selden, Valerie C. Anderson, Shirley McCartney, Thomas C. Origitano, Kim J. Burchiel, and Nicholas M. Barbaro

Object

In July 2010, the Society of Neurological Surgeons (SNS) introduced regional courses to promote patient safety and teach fundamental skills and knowledge to all postgraduate Year 1 (PGY1) trainees entering Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)–accredited US neurosurgery residency programs. Data from these courses demonstrated significant didactic learning and high faculty and resident satisfaction with hands-on training. Here, the authors evaluated the durability of learning from and the relevance of participation in SNS PGY1 courses as measured midway through PGY1 training.

Methods

Resident participants were resurveyed 6 months after boot camp course attendance to assess knowledge retention and course effectiveness. Exposure to relevant hands-on experiences during PGY1 training and the subjective value of pre-residency simulated training in the courses were assessed.

Results

Ninety-four percent of all residents entering US PGY1 neurosurgical training participated in the 2010 SNS boot camp courses. One hundred sixty-four (88%) of these resident participants responded to the survey. Six months after course completion, 99% of respondents believed the boot camp courses benefited beginning neurosurgery residents and imparted skills and knowledge that would improve patient care. The PGY1 residents' knowledge of information taught in the courses was retained 6 months after initial testing (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

The learning and other benefits of participation in a national curriculum for residents entering PGY1 neurosurgical training were maintained 6 months after the courses, halfway through the initial training year.

Restricted access

Ahmed M. Raslan, Reynaldo DeJesus, Caglar Berk, Andrew Zacest, Jim C. Anderson, and Kim J. Burchiel

Object

Hemifacial spasm is a clinical syndrome caused by vascular compression of the facial nerve in the cerebellopontine angle, which can be relieved by surgical intervention. Advances in medical imaging technology allow for direct visualization of the offending blood vessels in hemifacial spasm and similar conditions (such as trigeminal neuralgia). The utility of high resolution 3D MR angiography and 3D spoiled-gradient recalled (SPGR) imaging sequences for surgical decision-making in hemifacial spasm, as measured by sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, has not been previously determined.

Methods

A retrospective review was undertaken of 23 patients with hemifacial spasm who underwent operations between January 2001 and December 2006 at Oregon Health & Science University. All patients underwent preoperative high-resolution 3D MR angiography and 3D SPGR imaging. The sensitivity of the SPGR imaging/MR angiography interpretation of neurovascular compression (NVC) by both a neurosurgeon and 2 neuroradiologists was determined in relation to the presence of actual NVC during surgery.

Results

All patients were found to have NVC at surgery. After review by a neurosurgeon and 2 neuroradiologists, imaging data from 19 of the 23 patients were evaluated. The neurosurgeon's interpretation had a sensitivity of 79% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%. The first neuroradiologist's interpretation had a sensitivity of 21% with a PPV of 100%. Further interpretation by a blinded second neuroradiologist with expertise in MR imaging of hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia was conducted, and sensitivity was 59% and PPV was 100%. Specificity was not determined because there were no true negative cases. The negative predictive value was 0% for both the neurosurgeon's and neuroradiologists' evaluations.

Conclusions

Although high-resolution 3D MR angiography and 3D SPGR imaging was helpful in providing information about the anatomical relationship of cranial nerve VII and surrounding blood vessels, the authors determined that in the case of hemifacial spasm these types of imaging did not influence preoperative surgical decisionmaking.

Free access

Zachary C. Gersey, S. Shelby Burks, Kim D. Anderson, Marine Dididze, Aisha Khan, W. Dalton Dietrich, and Allan D. Levi

OBJECTIVE

Long-segment injuries to large peripheral nerves present a challenge to surgeons because insufficient donor tissue limits repair. Multiple supplemental approaches have been investigated, including the use of Schwann cells (SCs). The authors present the first 2 cases using autologous SCs to supplement a peripheral nerve graft repair in humans with long-term follow-up data.

METHODS

Two patients were enrolled in an FDA-approved trial to assess the safety of using expanded populations of autologous SCs to supplement the repair of long-segment injuries to the sciatic nerve. The mechanism of injury included a boat propeller and a gunshot wound. The SCs were obtained from both the sural nerve and damaged sciatic nerve stump. The SCs were expanded and purified in culture by using heregulin β1 and forskolin. Repair was performed with sural nerve grafts, SCs in suspension, and a Duragen graft to house the construct. Follow-up was 36 and 12 months for the patients in Cases 1 and 2, respectively.

RESULTS

The patient in Case 1 had a boat propeller injury with complete transection of both sciatic divisions at midthigh. The graft length was approximately 7.5 cm. In the postoperative period the patient regained motor function (Medical Research Council [MRC] Grade 5/5) in the tibial distribution, with partial function in peroneal distribution (MRC Grade 2/5 on dorsiflexion). Partial return of sensory function was also achieved, and neuropathic pain was completely resolved. The patient in Case 2 sustained a gunshot wound to the leg, with partial disruption of the tibial division of the sciatic nerve at the midthigh. The graft length was 5 cm. Postoperatively the patient regained complete motor function of the tibial nerve, with partial return of sensation. Long-term follow-up with both MRI and ultrasound demonstrated nerve graft continuity and the absence of tumor formation at the repair site.

CONCLUSIONS

Presented here are the first 2 cases in which autologous SCs were used to supplement human peripheral nerve repair in long-segment injury. Both patients had significant improvement in both motor and sensory function with correlative imaging. This study demonstrates preliminary safety and efficacy of SC transplantation for peripheral nerve repair.

Free access

Kieran Walsh

Restricted access

Paul Gigante, Michael M. McDowell, Samuel S. Bruce, Genevieve Chirelstein, Claudia A. Chiriboga, Joseph Dutkowsky, Elizabeth Fontana, Joshua Hyman, Heakyung Kim, Dean Morgan, Toni S. Pearson, Benjamin D. Roye, David P. Roye Jr., Patricia Ryan, Michael Vitale, and Richard C. E. Anderson

Object

Randomized clinical trials have established that lumbar selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) reduces lower-extremity tone and improves functional outcome in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Significant data exist to support a secondary effect on upper-extremity function in patients with upper-extremity spasticity. The effects of SDR on upper-extremity tone, however, are not well characterized. In this report, the authors sought to assess changes in upper-extremity tone in individual muscle groups after SDR and tried to determine if these changes could be predicted preoperatively.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 42 children who underwent SDR at Columbia University Medical Center/Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of NewYork-Presbyterian between 2005 and 2011. Twenty-five had upper-extremity spasticity. All underwent pre- and postoperative examination for measuring tone (Modified Ashworth Scale) and assessing functional outcome. Follow-up examinations with therapists were performed at least once at a minimum of 2 months postoperatively (mean 15 months).

Results

In the upper extremities, 23 (92%) of 25 patients had improvements of at least 1 Ashworth point in 2 or more independent motor groups on the Modified Ashworth Scale, and 12 (71%) of 17 families surveyed reported increases in motor control or spontaneous movement. The mean Modified Ashworth Scale scores for all upper-extremity muscle groups demonstrated an improvement from 1.34 to 1.22 (p < 0.001). Patients with a mean preoperative upper-extremity tone of 1.25–1.75 were most likely to benefit from reduction in tone (p = 0.0019). Proximal and pronator muscle groups were most likely to demonstrate reduced tone.

Conclusions

In addition to improvements in lower-extremity tone and function, SDR has demonstrable effects on upper extremities. Greater than 90% of our patients with elevated upper-extremity tone demonstrated reduction in tone in at least 2 muscle groups postoperatively. Patients with a mean Modified Ashworth Scale upper-extremity score of 1.25–1.75 may encounter the greatest reduction in upper-extremity tone.

Free access

Joshua D. Burks, Katie L. Gant, James D. Guest, Aria G. Jamshidi, Efrem M. Cox, Kim D. Anderson, W. Dalton Dietrich, Mary Bartlett Bunge, Barth A. Green, Aisha Khan, Damien D. Pearse, Efrat Saraf-Lavi, and Allan D. Levi

OBJECTIVE

In cell transplantation trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), quantifiable imaging criteria that serve as inclusion criteria are important in trial design. The authors’ institutional experience has demonstrated an overall high rate of screen failures. The authors examined the causes for trial exclusion in a phase I, open-lab clinical trial examining the role of autologous Schwann cell intramedullary transplantation. Specifically, they reviewed the imaging characteristics in people with chronic SCI that excluded applicants from the trial, as this was a common cause of screening failures in their study.

METHODS

The authors reviewed MRI records from 152 people with chronic (> 1 year) SCI who volunteered for intralesional Schwann cell transplantation but were deemed ineligible by prospectively defined criteria. Rostral-caudal injury lesion length was measured along the long axis of the spinal cord in the sagittal plane on T2-weighted MRI. Other lesion characteristics, specifically those pertaining to lesion cavity structure resulting in trial exclusion, were recorded.

RESULTS

Imaging records from 152 potential participants with chronic SCI were reviewed, 42 with thoracic-level SCI and 110 with cervical-level SCI. Twenty-three individuals (55%) with thoracic SCI and 70 (64%) with cervical SCI were not enrolled in the trial based on imaging characteristics. For potential participants with thoracic injuries who did not meet the screening criteria for enrollment, the average rostral-caudal sagittal lesion length was 50 mm (SD 41 mm). In applicants with cervical injuries who did not meet the screening criteria for enrollment, the average sagittal lesion length was 34 mm (SD 21 mm).

CONCLUSIONS

While screening people with SCI for participation in a cell transplantation clinical trial, lesion length or volume can exclude potential subjects who appear appropriate candidates based on neurological eligibility criteria. In planning future cell-based therapy trials, the limitations incurred by lesion size should be considered early due to the screening burden and impact on candidate selection.

Open access

Aisha Khan, Anthony Diaz, Adriana E. Brooks, S. Shelby Burks, Gagani Athauda, Patrick Wood, Yee-Shuan Lee, Risset Silvera, Maxwell Donaldson, Yelena Pressman, Kim D. Anderson, Mary Bartlett Bunge, Damien D. Pearse, W. Dalton Dietrich, James D. Guest, and Allan D. Levi

OBJECTIVE

Schwann cells (SCs) have been shown to play an essential role in axon regeneration in both peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) and spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The transplantation of SCs as an adjunctive therapy is currently under investigation in human clinical trials due to their regenerative capacity. Therefore, a reliable method for procuring large quantities of SCs from peripheral nerves is necessary. This paper presents a well-developed, validated, and optimized manufacturing protocol for clinical-grade SCs that are compliant with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs).

METHODS

The authors evaluated the SC culture manufacturing data from 18 clinical trial participants who were recruited for autologous SC transplantation due to subacute SCI (n = 7), chronic SCI (n = 8), or PNIs (n = 3). To initiate autologous SC cultures, a mean nerve length of 11.8 ± 3.7 cm was harvested either from the sural nerve alone (n = 17) or with the sciatic nerve (n = 1). The nerves were digested with enzymes and SCs were isolated and further expanded in multiple passages to meet the dose requirements for transplantation.

RESULTS

An average yield of 87.2 ± 89.2 million cells at P2 and 150.9 ± 129.9 million cells at P3 with high viability and purity was produced. Cell counts and rates of expansion increased with each subsequent passage from P0 to P3, with the largest rate of expansion between P2 and P3. Larger harvest nerve lengths correlated significantly with greater yields at P0 and P1 (p < 0.05). In addition, a viability and purity above 90% was sustained throughout all passages in nearly all cell products.

CONCLUSIONS

This study presents reliable CGMP-compliant manufacturing methods for autologous SC products that are suitable for regenerative treatment of patients with SCI, PNI, or other conditions.