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Dae-Jean Jo, Yong-Sang Kim, Sung-Min Kim, Ki-Tack Kim and Eun-Min Seo

OBJECT

Most thoracolumbar fractures have a good healing outcome with adequate treatment. However, posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis can occur in a proportion of thoracolumbar fractures after inappropriate treatment, osteoporosis, or osteonecrosis of the vertebral body. There are several surgical options to correct posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis, including anterior, posterior, and combined approaches, which are associated with varying degrees of success. The aim of this study was to assess the use of a modified closing wedge osteotomy for the treatment of posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis and to evaluate the radiographic findings and clinical outcomes of patients treated using this technique.

METHODS

Thirteen consecutive patients with symptomatic posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis were treated using a modified closing wedge osteotomy. The mean patient age was 62 years. The kyphosis apex ranged from T-10 to L-2. The sagittal alignment, kyphotic angle, neurological function, visual analog scale for back pain, and Oswestry Disability Index were evaluated before surgery and at follow-up.

RESULTS

The mean preoperative regional angle was 27. 4°, and the mean correction angle was 29. 6°. Sagittal alignment improved with a mean correction rate of 58. 3%. The mean surgical time was 275 minutes, and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 1585 ml. The intraoperative complications included 2 dural tears, 1 nerve root injury, and 1 superficial wound infection. The mean visual analog scale score for back pain improved from 6. 6 to 2, and the Oswestry Disability Index score decreased from 55. 4 to 22. 6 at the last follow-up. All patients achieved bony anterior fusion based on the presence of trabecular bone bridging at the osteotomy site.

CONCLUTIONS

The modified posterior closing wedge osteotomy technique achieves satisfactory kyphosis correction with direct visualization of the circumferentially decompressed spinal cord, as well as good fusion with less blood loss and fewer complications. It is an alternative method for treating patients with posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis.

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Dae-Jean Jo, Eun-Min Seo, Ki-Tack Kim, Sung-Min Kim and Sang-Hun Lee

Spondyloptosis is complete dislocation of the L-5 vertebral body on the sacrum anteriorly. Its optimal treatment is still controversial. In particular, choosing the optimal surgical technique is difficult in the osteoporotic elderly patient given the high incidence of instrumentation failure, pseudarthrosis, progressive slippage, and severe sagittal imbalance. The authors of this report used partial reduction and pedicular transvertebral screw fixation of the lumbosacral junction for the treatment of spondyloptosis in an osteoporotic elderly patient.

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Keun-Ho Lee, Ki-Tack Kim, Yong-Chan Kim, Joong-Won Lee and Kee-Yong Ha

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of and the risk factors for surgery-related complications demonstrated on radiography after pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 230 consecutive patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis due to AS who had undergone 1-level PSO at a single institution in the period from 2010 to 2017. The causes of surgery-related complications were divided into two types: surgical/technical failure and mechanical failure.

RESULTS

The patients consisted of 20 women and 210 men, with an average age of 43.4 years. The average follow-up period was 39.0 months. The preoperative sagittal vertical axis was 18.5 ± 69.3 cm, which improved to 4.9 ± 4.6 cm after PSO. Of the 77 patients (33.5%) who experienced minor or major surgery-related complications, 56 had complications related to surgical/technical failure (overall incidence 24.3%) and 21 had complications related to mechanical failure (overall incidence 9.1%). Fourteen patients (6.1%) underwent reoperation. However, among the 77 patients with complications, the rate of revision surgery was 18.2%. The most common radiological complications were as follows: sagittal translation in 24 patients, coronal imbalance in 20, under-correction in 8, delayed union in 8, and distal junctional failure and kyphosis in 8. The most common causes of reoperation were coronal imbalance in 4 patients, symptomatic malposition of pedicle screws in 3, and distal junctional failure in 3. Delayed union was statistically correlated with posterior sagittal translation (p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS

PSO can provide acceptable radiographic outcomes for the correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis in patients with AS. However, a high incidence of surgery-related complications related to mechanical failure and surgical technique can develop. Thorough radiographic investigation before and during surgery is needed to determine whether complete ossification occurs along the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments of the spine.

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Chong-Suh Lee, Kyung-Chung Kang, Sung-Soo Chung, Ki-Tack Kim and Seong-Kee Shin

OBJECT

The aim of this study was to examine the results of microbiological cultures from local bone autografts used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to identify their association with postoperative spinal infection.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively evaluated cases involving 328 patients who had no previous spinal surgeries and underwent PLIF for degenerative diseases with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Local bone was obtained during laminectomy, and microbiological culture was performed immediately prior to bone grafting. The associations between culture results from local bone autografts and postoperative spinal infections were evaluated.

RESULTS

The contamination rate of local bone was 4.3% (14 of 328 cases). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29%) was the most common contaminant isolated, followed by Streptococcus species and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Of 14 patients with positive culture results, 5 (35.7%) had postoperative spinal infections and were treated with intravenous antibiotics for a minimum of 4 weeks. One of these 5 patients also underwent reoperation for debridement during this 4-week period. Regardless of the microbiological culture results, the infection rate after PLIF with local bone autograft was 2.4% (8 of 328 cases), with 5 (62.5%) of 8 patients showing positive results on autograft culture.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of contamination of local bone autograft during PLIF was considerable, and positive culture results were significantly associated with postoperative spinal infection. Special attention focused on the preparation of local bone for autograft and its microbiological culture will be helpful for the control of postoperative spinal infection.

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Yong-Chan Kim, Ji Hao Cui, Ki-Tack Kim, Gyu-Taek Park, Keun-Ho Lee, Sung-Min Kim and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

In this study, the authors’ goal was to develop and validate novel radiographic parameters that better describe total body sagittal alignment (TBSA).

METHODS

One hundred sixty-six consecutive operative spinal deformity patients were evaluated using full-body stereoradiographic imaging. Seven TBSA parameters were measured and then correlated to 6 commonly used spinopelvic measurements. TBSA measures consisted of 4 distance measures relating the cranial center of mass (CCOM) to the sacrum, hips, knees, and ankles, and 3 angular measures relating the CCOM to the hips, knees, and ankles. Furthermore, each TBSA parameter was correlated to patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Scoliosis Research Society–22 (SRS-22) instruments. Thirty patients were randomly selected for inter- and intraobserver reliability testing of the TBSA parameters using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).

RESULTS

All TBSA radiographic parameters demonstrated strong linear correlation with the currently accepted primary measure of sagittal balance, the C7 sagittal vertical axis (r = 0.55–0.96, p < 0.001). Moreover, 5 of 7 TBSA measures correlated strongly with ODI and SRS-22 total scores (r = 0.42–0.51, p < 0.001). Inter- and intraobserver reliability for all TBSA measures was good to excellent (interrater ICC = 0.70–0.98, intrarater ICC = 0.77–1.0).

CONCLUSIONS

In spine deformity patients, novel TBSA radiographic parameters correlated well with PROs and with currently utilized spinal sagittal measurements. Inter- and intrarater reliability was high for these novel parameters. This is the first study to propose a reliable method for measuring head-to-toe global spinal alignment.

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Jung-Hee Lee, Ki-Tack Kim, Kyung-Soo Suk, Sang-Hun Lee, Bi-O Jeong, Hyun-Seok Oh, Chul-Hee Lee and Myung-Seo Kim

Intraspinal cystic lesions with different pathogeneses have been reported to cause neurological deficits; however, no one has focused on the intraspinal extradural cysts that develop after osteoporotic compression fracture. The reported case features a 66-year-old woman presenting with progressive neurological deficit, back pain, and no history of additional trauma after undergoing conservative treatment for an osteoporotic fracture of L-1. The authors present serial radiographs and MR images demonstrating an epidural cyst successfully treated via a single posterior approach. This appears to be the first such case reported in the literature.

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Se-Jun Park, Keun-Ho Lee, Chong-Suh Lee, Joon Young Jung, Jin Ho Park, Gab-Lae Kim and Ki-Tack Kim

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical results of instrumentation surgery without fusion for metastases to the spine.

METHODS

Between 2010 and 2017, patients with spinal tumors who underwent instrumentation without fusion surgery were consecutively evaluated. Preoperative and postoperative clinical data were evaluated. Data were inclusive for last follow-up and just prior to death if the patient died. Instrumentation-related complications included screw migration, screw or rod breakage, cage migration, and screw loosening.

RESULTS

Excluding patients who died within 6 months, a total of 136 patients (140 operations) were recruited. The average follow-up duration was 16.5 months (median 12.4 months). The pain visual analog scale score decreased from 6.4 to 2.5 (p < 0.001) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale score improved (p < 0.001). There were only 3 cases (2.1%) of symptomatic instrumentation-related complications that resulted in revisions. There were 6 cases of nonsymptomatic complications. The most common complication was screw migration or pull-out (5 cases). There were 3 cases of screw or rod breakage and 1 case of cage migration. Two-thirds of the cases of instrumentation-related complications occurred after 6 months, with a mean postoperative period of 1 year.

CONCLUSIONS

The current study reported successful outcomes with very low complication rates after nonfusion surgery for patients with spinal metastases, even among those who survived for more than 6 months. More than half of the instrumentation-related complications were asymptomatic and did not require revision. The results suggest that nonfusion surgery might be sufficient for a majority of patients with spinal metastases.